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dendrochronology

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absolute age

absolute age  

The age of a geologic phenomenon measured in present Earth years, rather than its age relative to other geologic phenomena (compare relative age). The term ‘absolute age’ has been considered rather ...
absolute dating

absolute dating  

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Archaeology
A range of methods for determining the absolute age of an object or material, for example using radiometric dating which measures the decay product produced by radioactive decay in minerals, or via ...
Andrew Ellicott Douglass

Andrew Ellicott Douglass  

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(1867–1962) [Bi]American astronomer at the University of Arizona in Tucson who was responsible for developing the technique of  dendrochronology as a dating method. He began his work on living trees ...
archaeometry

archaeometry  

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Archaeology
[De]The application of techniques and procedures from the hard sciences (physics, chemistry, biology, etc.) and engineering to archaeological questions and problems.
Archaeo-paleomagnetic Dating

Archaeo-paleomagnetic Dating  

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Archaeology
These two dating techniques rely on the fact that the Earth's magnetic field varies through time. Eddies in the semimolten core of the planet cause the strength of the magnetic ...
calibration

calibration  

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Archaeology
[De]When using radiocarbon dates relating to archaeological materials from the last 10 000 years or so it is necessary to standardize or calibrate the laboratory determination (conventional ...
cambium

cambium  

A plant tissue consisting of actively dividing cells (see meristem) that is responsible for increasing the girth of the plant, i.e. it causes secondary growth. The two most important cambia are the ...
carbon dating

carbon dating  

The determination of the age of an organic object from the relative proportions of the carbon isotopes carbon-12 and carbon-14 that it contains. The ratio between them changes as radioactive ...
chronology

chronology  

The order of events according to time. See also absolute chronology, relative chronology.
Climate Reconstruction

Climate Reconstruction  

Our knowledge of climate history prior to the availability of instrumental records comes from two main sources: (1) historical observations, where information on past climatic conditions is contained ...
core

core  

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Archaeology
[Ar]1 The piece of stone which a stone‐knapper works so as to produce flakes, blades, or core tools; also known as a blank.2 [Ge] An intact solid cylinder‐shaped sample of sediment, stone, or wood ...
cross-dating

cross-dating  

The matching of tree-ring width patterns and other properties among the trees and fragments of wood from a particular area. This enables the year in which each ring was formed in living trees and ...
cruck

cruck  

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History
Blade or inclined curved timber, meeting a similar timber to form an approximately triangular frame on which the subsidiary structure rests. A full or true cruck (c) has two blades serving as the ...
dating methods

dating methods  

During the last century geologists constructed a relative time-scale based on correlation of palaeontological and stratigraphic data. Depositional rates of sediments have also been employed as a ...
dating techniques

dating techniques  

Methods of estimating the age of rocks, palaeontological specimens, archaeological sites, etc. Relative dating techniques date specimens in relation to one another; for example, stratigraphy is used ...
Dating the Past

Dating the Past  

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Archaeology
Central to the process of doing archaeology is the necessity of understanding the chronological sequencing of archaeological entities and past events. Without a firm grasp of this sequencing, ...
dendroclimatology

dendroclimatology  

Branch of dendrochronology dealing with the relationships between the annual growth increment in tree trunks and climate, and especially with the reconstruction of past climates from dated tree-ring ...
dendroecology

dendroecology  

A branch of dendrochronology dealing with the relationships between patterns in dated tree-ring series and all the ecological factors that may influence those patterns. As well as climate, it ...
dendrogeomorphology

dendrogeomorphology  

The use of dated tree-ring series to study land-forms and geomorphological processes.
fission-track dating

fission-track dating  

A method of estimating the age of glass and other mineral objects by observing the tracks made in them by the fission fragments of the uranium nuclei that they contain. By irradiating the objects ...

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