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A. K. Ramanujan

A. K. Ramanujan  

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Literature
(1929–93),Indian poet, born in Mysore, educated there and at Indiana University. Long resident in the USA, he was appointed Professor of Linguistics and of South East Asian Languages and ...
Adi Granth

Adi Granth  

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Religion
The principal sacred scripture of Sikhism. Originally compiled under the direction of Arjan Dev (1563–1606), the fifth Sikh guru, it contains hymns and religious poetry as well as the teachings of ...
Ādi Hindu Movement

Ādi Hindu Movement  

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Religion
A predominantly north Indian urban reform movement, made up of Dalits (mostly camārs). Active in the 1920s and 1930s, they identified themselves with the ‘original’ (ādi) pre-Āryan inhabitants of ...
alaukika

alaukika  

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Religion
A term used in aesthetics and bhakti to describe the type of non-egotistic emotion felt by the spectator or devotee. It is opposed to kāma, which is a worldy or laukika emotion. More generally, it ...
Āḻvārs

Āḻvārs  

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Religion
6th–9th centuries ce)The name given to twelve South Indian poet-saints, whose works, and the personal experience of God that they evoked, were highly influential in the development and practice of ...
Annamācārya

Annamācārya  

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Music
(1408–1503)A South Indian poet-saint of the Śrī Vaiṣṇava tradition. He is said to have composed more than 32 000 songs in Telugu in praise of Veṅkaṭeśvara—Viṣṇu as ‘Lord of Veṅkaṭa Hill’ (Tirupati). ...
Appar

Appar  

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Religion
(Late 6th or 7th cent. ce).A Tamil poet, one of the sixty-three Nāyaṇmārs. A devotee of Śiva, his 312 surviving hymns remain in use. He is a model of the self-effacing servant of the Lord.[...]
Ārya Samāj

Ārya Samāj  

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Religion
A society founded in Bombay in 1875 by Dayānanda Sarasvatī to promote his version of reformed Hinduism. Through it he advocated what he saw as a return to a pure, Veda-based, pre-Mahābhārata war form ...
atman

atman  

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Religion
In Hindu philosophy, the spiritual life principle of the universe, especially when regarded as immanent in the real self of the individual. Various strands in Hindu thought differ in the way they ...
ātmanivedana

ātmanivedana  

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Religion
Complete surrender to Viṣṇu, the ninth stage or degree of devotion (bhakti) according to the Bhāgavata Purāṇa.
avarṇadharmī bhakti

avarṇadharmī bhakti  

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Religion
A term sometimes applied to the kind of devotion (bhakti) initiated in North India by various poets, sants, and theologians, who rejected class (varṇa), caste, and, in some cases, gender distinctions ...
Bali

Bali  

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Religion
In Hindu mythology, one of the leaders of the daityas (demons) and grandson of Prahlāda. According to one legend he was offered the choice of entering heaven with one hundred ...
Bāul

Bāul  

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Religion
c.15th–17th centuries ce)The name given to the followers of a bhakti tradition originating in Bengal, whose characteristic activity is to renounce the householder life and wander the countryside ...
Bhagavadgita

Bhagavadgita  

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Religion
A sacred Hindu poem composed between the 2nd century bc and the 2nd century ad and incorporated into the Mahabharata. Presented as a dialogue between the Kshatriya prince Arjuna and his divine ...
Bhagavān

Bhagavān  

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Religion
(Skt.; Pāli, Bhagavant).Reverential title used of the Buddha in sūtras.variously translated as ‘Lord’, ‘Master’, ‘Blessed One’, etc.
Bhagavan Das

Bhagavan Das  

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Religion
(b. 1945)A California-born bhakti-yogin who lived in India and Nepal as a renunciant in the 1960s. On his return to the USA he mixed with other popularizers of Indian culture, such as Alan Ginsberg ...
Bhāgavata-purāṇa

Bhāgavata-purāṇa  

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Religion
The best-known Purāṇa, and one of the most popular and influential of all Hindu texts, the Bhāgavata is a Vaiṣṇava work produced in South India in the 9th or early 10th century ce. It is probably the ...
bhajan

bhajan  

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Music
A devotional hymn, or collection of hymns, usually sung collectively (in satsaṅg). Singing bhajans is the principal mode of worship among bhakti sects in many regions of India. The hymns are often ...
bhakta

bhakta  

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Religion
Someone who practises bhakti; i.e. a devotee of a particular deity.bhakta (Vaiṣṇava)
Bhakti Sūtra

Bhakti Sūtra  

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Religion
1 An 8th century ce Sanskrit philosophical treatise on the nature of bhakti, attributed to Śāṇḍilya.2 A 12th-century(?) ce text, attributed to Nārada (2), enumerating various degrees (eleven in all) ...

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