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Achaemenid

Achaemenid  

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Archaeology
A member of the dynasty ruling in Persia from Cyrus I to Darius III (553–330 bc); the name comes from Greek Akhaimenēs ‘Achaemenes’, the reputed ancestor of the dynasty.
Afterlife

Afterlife  

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Religion
In Islam, one's condition in the afterlife, whether in heaven or hell, is determined by the degree to which one has affirmed the unity and justice of God, acted with mercy and justice toward others, ...
Ahl al-Kitab

Ahl al-Kitab  

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Religion
Quranic term referring to Jews, Christians, and Sabaeans as possessors of books previously revealed by God. Sometimes applied to Zoroastrians, Magians, and Samaritans. The books associated with Jews ...
Ahl-i-Haqq

Ahl-i-Haqq  

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Religion
People of the truth. Also known as Ali Ilahis, “deifiers of Ali.” Members of a sect centered in northwest Iran, incorporating certain Shii and Sufi ideas, associated with Sultan Sohak (fourteenth or ...
Ahriman

Ahriman  

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Religion
The evil spirit in the doctrine of Zoroastrianism, the opponent of Ahura Mazda.
Ahura Mazda

Ahura Mazda  

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Religion
The creator god of Zoroastrianism, the force for good and the opponent of Ahriman; also called Ormazd. The name is Avestan, and means literally ‘wise deity’.
al- Suhrawardī

al- Suhrawardī  

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Religion
Shihāb al-Dīn al-Suhrawardī (1155–1192)was an Iranianphilosopher who was born in the village of Suhraward in northwestern Iran. Educated in Marāgheh and Isfahan, he traveled in Iran, Anatolia, and ...
Ameretat

Ameretat  

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Religion
Representing immortality, Ameretat is one of the Persian Zoroastrian (see Zoroastrian entries) deities—the Amesa Spentas (see Amesa Spentas). She is particularly associated with Haurvatat or ...
Amesa Spentas

Amesa Spentas  

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Religion
The ‘Bounteous’ (or Holy) Immortals in Zoroastrianism. Zoroaster mentions a number of heavenly forces, the creations of, and therefore subservient to, Ahura Mazda, but powers through which Ahura and ...
Amretat

Amretat  

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Religion
Representing immortality, Amretat is one of the Persian (Iranian) Zoroastrian deities, the Amesa Spentas. She is particularly associated with Haurvatat, or prosperity, and with the earth patroness ...
Anahita

Anahita  

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Religion
(Anaitis, Ἀναίτις), Persian goddess of the fertilizing waters (Avesta Yašt 5). Artaxerxes (2) II (404–358 bc) introduced the use of cult-images into the major cities of his empire (Berossus in ...
Angra Mainyu

Angra Mainyu  

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Religion
The ‘Destructive Spirit’ or ‘devil’ in Zoroastrianism. He is thought to have existed ‘from the beginning’, independent of Ahura Mazda (i.e. he is coeval). Angra Mainyu is the source of ...
Arabian mythology

Arabian mythology  

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Religion
Muslims consider the pre-Islamic age as the Jahiliyah, or “Age of Ignorance”—that is, the time before the revelations of Allah (al-Lah, “the god”) to his prophet Muhammad. The Arabs were ...
Ardashir I

Ardashir I  

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(d.ad 240)King of Persia (c.224–41). Ardashir overthrew the last Parthian king, Artabanus V, and reunited Persia. He founded the Sassanian empire, establishing its capital at Ctesiphon. He ...
Armaïti

Armaïti  

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Religion
One of the Amesa Spentas or major deities associated with the Zoroastrian supreme god Ahura Mazda, Spenta Armaiti, or Spendarmat in Pahlavi, is the goddess of the earth and is ...
Armenian mythology

Armenian mythology  

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Religion
The mythology of the Indo-European Armenian (Hay) people, who came to Anatolia as early as the middle of the second millennium b.c.e., was probably a mixture of assimilated proto-Greek and ...
Aryan

Aryan  

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A group of Indo-European speaking people who spread through Iran and N. India in the early 2nd millenium bce. This is the so-called Aryan invasion.
Asha

Asha  

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Religion
One of the Ameshas of Iranian Zoroastrianism, Asha (Arta or Ashavahisht) was the guardian of fire and of moral and physical order.
Asian mythology

Asian mythology  

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Religion
There are those who rightly question the appropriateness of defining a mythology by way of geographical boundaries. Asia is an immense region containing a great variety of cultures and a ...
Atas

Atas  

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Religion
Fire, in Zoroastrianism one of the seven Good Creations of Ahura Mazda, the one most commonly bound up with worship. There are many levels to the symbolism. The ritual fire ...

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