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Abdul Hamid II

Abdul Hamid II  

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Religion
(d. 1918)Thirty-fourth Ottoman sultan (r. 1876–1909). His reign faced overwhelming difficulties: an insolvent treasury, violent nationalist movements in the Balkans, antireform movements among some ...
Abdullah Cevdet

Abdullah Cevdet  

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Abdullah Cevdet (1869– 1932),was a leading Ottoman/Turkish free-thinker, materialist, and Westernizer. He was born in the town of Arapgir in Maʿmuretʿül-Azîz Province of the Ottoman Empire and grew ...
Arab Nationalism

Arab Nationalism  

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Defined by an anticolonial ethos and the glorification of origins and history in the face of Western dominance experienced by Arab countries in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Aims at ...
Armenia

Armenia  

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History
A region south of the Caucasus in Asia Minor, comprising the Republic of Armenia (see Armenia, Republic of) but also parts of eastern Turkey and northern Iran. Armenian culture dates from the 6th ...
Armenian genocide

Armenian genocide  

(1915–16)At the height of World War I, the Young Turk government of the Ottoman Empire suspected its Armenian population of harbouring sympathy for the Russian enemy. Armenians serving in the Ottoman ...
Bulgaria

Bulgaria  

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History
Bulgaria is now politically more stable and is about to join the European UnionBulgaria has three main natural regions, each of which extends across the country from west to east. The most northerly, ...
Enver Pasha

Enver Pasha  

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(1881–1922)Turkish political and military leader. A leader of the Young Turks in the revolution of 1908, he came to power as part of a ruling triumvirate following a coup d'état in 1913. He played a ...
Ideology and Islam

Ideology and Islam  

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Religion
Most Muslims claim that “Islam is one” and offers a blueprint for all aspects of life. Islam increasingly occupies a special place in school curricula, and states seek to control what is said in ...
Ismet Inönü

Ismet Inönü  

(b. 14 Sept. 1884, d. 25 Dec. 1973).Prime Minister of Turkey 1923–4, 1925–37, 1961–5; President of Turkey 1938–50 Born Mustafa Ismet in Izmir, he was commissioned into the Ottoman army in 1903. ...
İttihad-i Muhammadi Cemiyeti

İttihad-i Muhammadi Cemiyeti  

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Religion
Muhammadan Union, political and religious organization founded by Hafiz Dervis Vahdeti, a Naqshbandi Sufi from Cyprus, via the newspaper Volkan in 1909. Known for its role in the insurrection of ...
Kemal Atatürk

Kemal Atatürk  

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(1881–1938)Turkish general and statesman, President (1923–38). Leader of the postwar Turkish Nationalist Party, he was elected President of a provisional government in 1920. With the official ...
Mahmud Jelâl Bayar

Mahmud Jelâl Bayar  

(b. 16 May 1884, d. 21 Aug. 1986).President of Turkey 1950–60 Born in Umurbey, he took up work in a bank and other employment. He joined the Young Turk movement in 1907, and in 1919 the resistance ...
Mehmed Âkif Ersoy

Mehmed Âkif Ersoy  

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(d. 1936)Turkish Islamist poet. Gifted linguist in Turkish, Arabic, Persian, and French. Wrote poetic social commentary illustrating his vision for an Islamic society. His “Independence March” was ...
Mehmed Said Halim Pasha

Mehmed Said Halim Pasha  

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(d. 1921)Ottoman grand vizier and Islamic reformer. Leader of the Islamist faction of the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) and spokesman for the conservative Islamist faction of Young Turks. His ...
Ottoman Empire

Ottoman Empire  

The Muslim empire of the Turks (1299–1922), established in northern Anatolia by Osman I and expanded by his successors to include all of Asia Minor and much of south-east Europe. Ottoman power ...
Pan-Turanism

Pan-Turanism  

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Religion
Nationalist ideology that emerged in Ottoman Turkey during the Young Turk era (1908–18) in response to the failure of Ottomanism in the face of other nationalisms (Greek, Arab, Armenian) in the ...
Young Ottomans

Young Ottomans  

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Religion
Liberal movement that developed the first constitutional ideology of the Ottoman Empire; influential from circa 1800 to 1876. Alliance of reformist ulama and intellectuals whose ideas were partially ...
Ziya Gökalp

Ziya Gökalp  

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(1875–1924).A Turkish liberal reformer who prepared his country's orientation towards the establishment of a modern secular state. Turkish authorities have on occasion revived the cult of Ziya Gökalp ...

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