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Xenophon

(c. 428—354 bc) Greek historian, writer, and military leader

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Aelius Theon

Aelius Theon  

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(RE 5)of Alexandria, a rhetor of the 1st cent. ad, said to have written works on Xenophon (1), Isocrates, and Demosthenes (2), as well as an Art of Rhetoric ...
Alexander of Pherae

Alexander of Pherae  

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,‘tyrant’ 369–358 bc.He achieved power by the murder of his uncle, Polyphron, and throughout his reign he attempted to restore the dominant position in Thessaly which Jason (2) had ...
Amadocus

Amadocus  

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Name of two Thracian kings (see Thrace). (1), Odrysian Thracian king who offered Athens military support against Sparta (405 bc)—fruitlessly since Athenian generals refused co-operation with his ...
Antiphon

Antiphon  

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(c.480–411 bc),of the deme of Rhamnus, the first Attic orator whose works were preserved. From a prominent family, he participated in the intellectual movement inspired by the sophists, taking a ...
Arcadian League

Arcadian League  

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Common ethnic identity led to Arcadian federation (see federal states), particularly in the 4th cent. bc. The coin-legend Arkadikon suggests federal ambitions in the 5th cent. bc, and the Spartan ...
Arginusae

Arginusae  

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Small islands between Lesbos and the mainland, scene of a battle between the Athenian and Spartan fleets in 406 bc. Sparta's 120 triremes were probably in a single line abeam, Athens' 150 in a double ...
Aristippus

Aristippus  

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Philosophy
(5th century bc).An associate of Socrates, celebrated as a defender and exemplar of a life of sensual pleasure. His advocacy of pleasure was taken up by the Cyrenaic school ...
Armenia

Armenia  

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History
A region south of the Caucasus in Asia Minor, comprising the Republic of Armenia (see Armenia, Republic of) but also parts of eastern Turkey and northern Iran. Armenian culture dates from the 6th ...
armies, Greek and Hellenistic

armies, Greek and Hellenistic  

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Apart from what little archaeology can tell us, our earliest evidence comes from Homer, but it is uncertain how far the poems can be taken as depicting real warfare. To some extent, what happens on ...
Arrian

Arrian  

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c. ad 86–160.Born in Nicomedia, he held local office and pursued studies with Epictetus, whose lectures he later published. In Greece between 108 and 112 he attracted the friendship of Hadrian, who ...
art, the military

art, the military  

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Merely to use the term ‘the military art’ is to enter directly into the debate as to whether warfare is indeed an art, thus the province of unquantifiable qualities such ...
asceticism

asceticism  

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Religion
The practice of severe self-discipline and abstention from all forms of indulgence, typically for religious reasons. The term comes (in the mid 17th century, via medieval Latin or Greek) from Greek ...
baggage

baggage  

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Generic term covering the portable equipment of an army. In the ancient world the logistic needs of armies were relatively straightforward compared to the complex array matériel needed today. Despite ...
Basil H. Liddell Hart

Basil H. Liddell Hart  

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(1895–1970), English military writer and theorist.Liddell Hart, Cambridge‐educated, served as an infantry officer on the western front in World War I (twice wounded) and retired from the army as ...
battle of Aegospotami

battle of Aegospotami  

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History
The naval battle (405 bc) fought in the Hellespont, the strait between the Aegean Sea and the Sea of Marmara, that sealed the defeat of Athens in the Peloponnesian War. For five days the Athenian ...
battle of Nemea

battle of Nemea  

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(394 bc).Perhaps the greatest of hoplite battles, the battle was fought east of the river Nemea in the NE Peloponnese (see Nemea), between 6,000 Spartan hoplites, with perhaps 12,500 ...
biography

biography  

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Literature
A narrative history of the life of some person; or the practice of writing such works. Most biographies provide an account of the life of a notable individual from birth to death, or in the case of ...
Callias

Callias  

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(c.450–370bc),Athenian aristocrat, grandson of Callias (1), notorious for his wealth and extravagance. He was dadouchos of the Eleusinian mysteries (see Callias (1) ). He was ridiculed by comic ...
Callicratidas

Callicratidas  

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Spartan admiral, who succeeded and quarrelled with Lysander in 406 bc. After cowing Lysander's partisans and refusing to wait for Persian money, he assembled a large fleet (140–70 ships) from ...
Chaerephon

Chaerephon  

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(5th cent. bc),Athenian, of the deme of Sphettus, a friend and enthusiastic admirer of Socrates. With other democrats he was banished by the Thirty Tyrants and returned with Thrasybulus (2) in 403, ...

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