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agricultural technology

agricultural technology  

Broadly defined, agricultural technology involves the production, processing, and marketing of a constellation of edible and non-edible commodities produced on farms. These commodities ranged from ...
alum and astringents

alum and astringents  

Of substances used medically to shrink tissues and lessen the discharge of blood or mucus, the best-known was alum (aluminum potassium sulfate), a salt used in compresses to heal wounds. ...
animal finds in the east and west

animal finds in the east and west  

Archaeozoology reveals both sacred and secular human-animal relationships, adding scientific evidence to written and pictorial sources. Most finds represent opportunistic exploitation of cattle, ...
Animal Husbandry

Animal Husbandry  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
Concerned not only with ‘domestic animals,’ but also bees and silkworms. Throughout the MA, animals for the most part were allowed to wander free; thus horses, for example, were often ...
arsenals and navies

arsenals and navies  

An arsenal consisted of a yard for shipbuilding, a repair shop, a magazine for storing detached pieces and disarmed hulls, and a workshop for making armaments, as well as sails ...
Ballinasloe

Ballinasloe  

Co. Galway, the site of Ireland's best known fair. While patents were granted for fairs on this site in the 17th century, they did not prosper until the early 18th ...
banking, finance, and taxation

banking, finance, and taxation  

Medieval financial and fiscal institutions owed little to ancient precedents, but were produced by the distinctive social, political, and economic features of medieval Europe. Medieval business ...
Boiling down

Boiling down  

Was the process of melting down the carcasses of stock, mainly sheep, reducing them to fat which could then be converted into tallow. Introduced into the colonies with the development ...
Bruges

Bruges  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A city in NW Belgium, capital of the province of West Flanders, which until the 15th century was a centre of the Flemish textile trade.Bruges Group a political pressure group formed with the ...
Calimala

Calimala  

Outstanding guild of medieval Florence. Its members were merchants who engaged in foreign trade and imported wool cloth from Flanders and northern France for finishing. Among the seven arti maggiori ...
carding and combing

carding and combing  

Two contrasting processes for preparing wool for spinning: combing aligned the fibres by means of a pair of long-toothed iron combs; carding evened the density of short-stapled wool with two ...
Ciompi Revolution

Ciompi Revolution  

The ciompi were the day-labourers in the wool industry in Florence; they were not allowed to join the Wool Guild or form their own association. They were subject to summary ...
Cistercian entrepreneurs

Cistercian entrepreneurs  

The economies of Cistercian monasteries during the central MA varied considerably. Geographical circumstance and differing levels of ambition determined development. The paradigmatic Cistercian ...
clothing and costume

clothing and costume  

Clothing in the long medieval period varied widely, as did other aspects of material culture, and was determined by geographic locale, local political structure, and one’s social group. Based on ...
Company of the Staple

Company of the Staple  

Company designated by the crown to control the export and trade of English raw wool. In the 14th century, English exporters were required to trade exclusively at specific staples (market ...
cotton

cotton  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
[Sp]Bushy plant (Gossypinum hirsutum) with seeds covered in a soft white fibrous substance (lint) that can be made into thread. Native to Mesoamerica and parts of South America. Domesticated by ...
cotton

cotton  

As a trade crop or fabric; Cottonopolis was a nickname for the city of Manchester, in NW England, once a centre of the British cotton trade, and King Cotton was cotton as the dominant commercial crop ...
crafts.

crafts.  

Numerous crafts and industries developed during the medieval period, including textiles, the hide and leather industry, mining and metal processing, woodworking crafts of various kinds, food ...
CSIRO

CSIRO  

(Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation)was founded in the midst of World War I by Prime Minister Hughes, who was impressed by Germany's technological might and wanted to create ...
decorative arts

decorative arts  

Art that is used to decorate or embellish an object that has a practical purpose, as opposed to fine art, which exists as an end in itself.

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