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Christian Wolff

(1679—1754)

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Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten

Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten  

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Overview Page
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Philosophy
(1714–62)German aesthetician. Baumgarten was born in Berlin and educated at Halle, where he became professor before moving in 1740 to a chair at Frankfurt. He taught a modified Leibnizian system, ...
Aufklärung

Aufklärung  

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Overview Page
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Literature
The German term for the Enlightenment.
August Hermann Francke

August Hermann Francke  

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Religion
(1663–1727), German Pietist and educationalist. He was already attracted to a pietistic form of religion when he came into contact with P. J. Spener. In 1691 he was appointed professor of Greek and ...
Christian August Crusius

Christian August Crusius  

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Philosophy
(1715–75)German theologian and philosopher. Crusius was professor of philosophy at Leipzig, and is principally remembered as one of the targets of Kant, particularly in his Dreams of a Spirit-Seer ...
civil law

civil law  

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Law
1 The law of any particular state, now usually called municipal law.2 Roman law.3 A legal system based on Roman law, as distinct from the English system of common law.4 Private law, as opposed to ...
Classics of International Law

Classics of International Law  

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A series of 22 volumes, published by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace from 1911 to 1950 under the general editorship of James Brown Scott (see Scott, James Brown), of ...
Eclectics

Eclectics  

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The name given to juridical writers of a particular school, sometimes also called ‘Grotians’, who stood somewhere between the naturalists and the positivists . They espoused a dualistic character of ...
Emer de Vattel

Emer de Vattel  

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(1714–1767).Swiss specialist in international law. Emer de Vattel was born on April 25, 1714, at Couvet in Neuchâtel, at the time a principality of Prussia that was also associated ...
Enzyklopädie

Enzyklopädie  

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Overview Page
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Literature
The first notable encyclopedia completed in German is the translation of P. Bayle's Dictionnaire historique et critique (1695–7) by J. C. Gottsched (4 vols., 1741–4). Before this the monumental ...
Germany

Germany  

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German legal history begins with the Saxon emperors of the tenth century, and its initial era spans the tenth to the mid-thirteenth centuries. Even though there was no specific national ...
Giancinto Sigismondo Gerdil

Giancinto Sigismondo Gerdil  

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Philosophy
(1718–1802)Savoyard theologian, and eventually (1777), cardinal of the church. A disciple of Malebranche, and opponent of Locke, Wolff, and Newton, Gerdil wrote a critique of Émile from an ...
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz  

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Philosophy
(1646–1716),German philosopher and mathematician, and one of the chief forces leading to the German Enlightenment. He is chiefly remembered in a literary context for parodies of his ‘optimistic’ ...
Halle

Halle  

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Literature
Established as a military outpost by Charlemagne in 806 and valued for its salt, Halle became part of Henry I’s fortification network in the early 10th century. In 961 Otto ...
Hermann Samuel Reimarus

Hermann Samuel Reimarus  

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Religion
(1694–1768)German biblical scholar in Hamburg. As a deist he rejected the historical worth of events in the Bible ascribed to supernatural agents, such as miracles. He was reckoned by Albert ...
Immanuel Kant

Immanuel Kant  

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Philosophy
(1724–1804).German philosopher. His Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime (1764) and Critique of Judgement (1790) laid the foundations of much aesthetic theory, especially in ...
Jakob Paul Gundling

Jakob Paul Gundling  

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Literature
(Hersbruck, 1673–1731, Potsdam),was appointed press adviser and historiographer to King Friedrich Wilhelm I of Prussia. A man of appreciable learning and great vanity, Gundling was included in the ...
Johann Christoph Gottsched

Johann Christoph Gottsched  

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Literature
(1700–66)German dramatist and critic. While professor of literature in Leipzig he formed a close acquaintance with Caroline Neuber and her acting troupe in the 1730s. Together they vigorously opposed ...
Johann Heinrich Gottlob Justi

Johann Heinrich Gottlob Justi  

(1717–1771), German political philosopher. Few figures have remained so controversial as Johann H. G. von Justi. Scholars still debate whether he was an original thinker or a “recoiner of other ...
jus voluntarium

jus voluntarium  

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This term meaning ‘volitional’ rather than ‘voluntary’ law or rules, in contrast to jus necessarium or ‘necessary’ law or rules is employed by Wolff (see Wolff, Christian), particularly in his ...
Mikhail Vasilievich Lomonosov

Mikhail Vasilievich Lomonosov  

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(1711–1765) Russian scientist and scholarLomonosov was the son of a fisherman from Deniskova, now Lomonosov, in Russia. He left for Moscow in 1730 to obtain an education and studied science there ...

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