Overview

water Vapor

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absolute humidity

absolute humidity  

The amount of water vapour in air, determined as the mass of vapour per unit mass of air, and normally given in grams per cubic metre. See also humidity; specific humidity.
absorption

absorption  

1 (in chemistry) The take up of a gas by a solid or liquid, or the take up of a liquid by a solid. Absorption differs from adsorption in that the absorbed substance permeates the bulk of the ...
absorption, atmospheric

absorption, atmospheric  

The various components of the Earth's atmosphere act to reduce or completely block certain wavelengths of the radiation incident at upper levels. The principal active atoms are oxygen and nitrogen, ...
advection fog

advection fog  

1 Fog that forms through the advection of moist stable air that has been carried over a cold surface, which causes it to cool below its dew point.2 Pre-existing fog that has been carried over a ...
air

air  

1 A mixture of gases that makes up the Earth's atmosphere. It comprises about 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, less than 1% of carbon dioxide and other gases, and varying amounts of water vapour that humans ...
atmospheric chemistry

atmospheric chemistry  

The study of the chemical composition of the atmosphere, of aerosols, pollutants, and rainfall, and the various chemical reactions in which they are involved. It includes the processes of ...
atmospheric structure

atmospheric structure  

The broadly horizontal layering of the atmosphere, the layers being distinguished by differences in the rate of change of temperature with height, which either favour or discourage the development of ...
cloud

cloud  

A visible, dense mass of water droplets and/or ice crystals, suspended in the air, and generally forming when air is forced to rise: at a front, over mountains, or because of convection. Clouds ...
cloud droplet

cloud droplet  

A particle of liquid water that is created by the condensation of water vapour onto a cloud condensation nucleus. Cloud droplets are usually smaller than raindrops.
condensation

condensation  

The change of a vapour or gas into a liquid. The change of phase is accompanied by the evolution of heat (see latent heat).
condensation nucleus

condensation nucleus  

A nucleus that promotes the condensation of water vapour into a water droplet. Typically, a suitable nucleus has a radius greater than 0.1 μm, which thus excludes the smallest (and most numerous) ...
cyclonic rain

cyclonic rain  

Rain that results from the vertical motion in a synoptic-scale system, such as a depression, or at a front. See also convective rain; orographic precipitation.
deposition

deposition  

1 The accumulation or laying down of sediment.2 The conversion of water vapour directly into ice, without first becoming a liquid. In chemistry this is known as sublimation.
dew

dew  

A type of condensation where water droplets form on the ground, or on objects close to it. Dew forms when strong night-time terrestrial radiation cools the ground to chill the overlying air to dew ...
dew point

dew point  

The temperature, with constant pressure and water-vapour content, to which air must be cooled for saturation to occur. Dew-point may be determined from the dew-point hygrometer which indicates ...
equivalent temperature

equivalent temperature  

The temperature that an air parcel would assume if all the water vapour present were removed by condensation, under conditions of constant pressure, with the latent heat released being used to warm ...
evaporation fog

evaporation fog  

Fog that forms through the evaporation of relatively warm water or raindrops into cooler air. Examples are steam fog and frontal fog, respectively.
evapotranspiration

evapotranspiration  

Combined term for water lost as vapour from a soil or open water surface (evaporation) and water lost from the surface of a plant, mainly via the stomata (transpiration). The combined term is often ...
flue gas

flue gas  

The air that is released by a flue or stack after combustion in the burner it is venting, which can contain nitrogen oxides, carbon oxides, water vapour, sulphur oxides, particles, and many chemical ...
freezing condensation

freezing condensation  

A process that occurs in the clouds in which ice crystals trap water vapour, grow larger and heavier, and begin to fall as rain or snow.

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