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Alfred Russel Wallace

(1823—1913) naturalist, evolutionary theorist, and social critic

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Amazon

Amazon  

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Overview Page
Subject:
History
Explorers of the enigmatic Amazon region have bequeathed us tales of heroism, drama, misfortune, dedication, avarice, cruelty, and scientific integrity. They explored against a backdrop of massive ...
Charles Darwin

Charles Darwin  

(1809–82)British naturalist, who studied medicine in Edinburgh followed by theology at Cambridge University, intending a career in the Church. However, his interest in natural history led him to ...
classification of psychiatric disorders

classification of psychiatric disorders  

Historical aspectsAdvances in classification have made important contributions to the progress of physical, biological, and even the human sciences. Kepler, Tycho Brahe, and Galileo laid the ...
Durio

Durio  

(family Bombacaceae)A genus of rain-forest trees whose slender parts are covered with peltate scales. The flowers have numerous stamens, are often cauliflorous or ramiflorous, and are probably all ...
Edward I

Edward I  

(1239–1307)King of England (1272–1307), in succession to his father Henry III. He was married to Eleanor of Castile (1254), then to Margaret of France (1299). Edward's reputation as a successful ...
evolution

evolution  

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Overview Page
In biology, the genetic transformations of populations through time, resulting from genetic variation and the subsequent impact of the environment on rates of reproductive success. See also Darwinism.
faunal region

faunal region  

A region of the earth with a distinct and characteristic assemblage of animal taxa. There are six commonly recognized faunal regions used in zoogeography: the Ethiopian region, consisting of Africa ...
Grant Allen

Grant Allen  

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Literature
(1848–99),went to Jamaica, as professor of mental and moral philosophy, where he formulated his evolutionary system of philosophy based on the works of H. Spencer. His Physiological Aesthetics (1877) ...
Henry Drummond

Henry Drummond  

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Subject:
Philosophy
(1851–97),theological writer and revivalist. Brought up in the Free Church of Scotland, he was educated at New College, Edinburgh, and at Tübingen. In 1874–5 he assisted D. L. Moody ...
Henry Walter Bates

Henry Walter Bates  

(1825–92)An English naturalist who, in 1848, accompanied A. R. Wallace on an exploration of the Amazon, where he collected nearly 15 000 species of insects, 8000 of which were new to science. His ...
idealism, British

idealism, British  

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Subject:
Philosophy
Movement in nineteenth- and twentieth-century British philosophy according to which ultimate reality is mental or spiritual, or at least not physical. Bradley, Green, and Bosanquet think matter is ...
Julian Huxley

Julian Huxley  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
(1887–1975) British zoologist, philosopher, and public servantEssays of a Biologist (1923) Non-FictionReligion Without Revelation (1927) Non-FictionWhat Dare I Think? (1931) Non-FictionThe Captive ...
Robert Chambers

Robert Chambers  

(1802–71)The author of Chambers's Encyclopaedia, who in 1844 published anonymously a book called Vestiges of a Natural History of Creation, in which he revived the idea of evolution first proposed by ...
Society for Psychical Research

Society for Psychical Research  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
On 6 January 1882 William Barrett, a professor of physics at the Royal College of Science in Dublin who had been engaged in experiments concerning thought-transference, convened a conference to ...
Society for Psychical Research

Society for Psychical Research  

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Overview Page
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Literature
A body founded in 1882 by F. W. H. Myers, H. Sidgwick, and others. The Society, in a period of intense interest in spiritualism and the supernatural, investigated with high standards of scientific ...
spiritualism

spiritualism  

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Overview Page
Subject:
History
In contemporary usage not a version of the doctrine that spirit is the ultimate substance of the world (see absolute idealism), but the superstitious belief that the spirits of the dead communicate ...
Thomas Robert Malthus

Thomas Robert Malthus  

(1766–1834)English economist and clergyman. He was a pioneer of the science of political economy and is known for his theory, as expressed in Essay on Population (1798), that the rate of increase of ...
W. H. Hudson

W. H. Hudson  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
(1841–1922),was born near Buenos Aires. He came to London in 1874 where he remained, often in poverty, for the rest of his life. His novel Green Mansions (1904) is probably his best‐known book. His ...
Wallace line

Wallace line  

An imaginary line that runs between the Indonesian islands of Bali and Lombok and represents the separation of the Australian and Oriental faunas. It was proposed by A. R. Wallace, who had noted that ...
William Winwood Reade

William Winwood Reade  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
(1838–75) British poet, novelist, and controversialistCharlotte and Myra (1859) FictionLiberty Hall, Oxon. (1860) FictionThe Martyrdom of Man (1872) PoetryThe Outcast (1875) FictionCharlotte and Myra ...

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