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absorption

absorption  

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Transition between a wall-sur-face or a pier and the springing of a vault or vault-ribs in Gothic architecture, where the vault seems to flow into (or be absorbed by) the wall or pier.
abutment

abutment  

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A solid architectural block, usually of masonry, designed to counteract the lateral thrust of a vault or arch. Abutments were typically used in massive, round-arched Romanesque buildings.
Alexander the Mason III

Alexander the Mason III  

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(fl. c.1235–57).English? master-mason in charge of the works at Lincoln Cathedral c.1240. He was probably responsible for the building of the nave, chapter-house, and the Galilee, together with the ...
annular

annular  

Ring-shaped. An annular vault springs from two concentric walls circular on plan, as in Santa Costanza, Rome (c.ad 325).
apse

apse  

A large semicircular or polygonal recess in a church, arched or with a domed roof and typically at the church's eastern end. Recorded from the early 19th century, the word comes from Latin apsis ...
Arata Isozaki

Arata Isozaki  

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(1931– ).Japanese architect. His work has drawn on a wide range of sources, as he has held that anything in the history of architecture is fair game for quotation and/or interpretation. His syntheses ...
arch

arch  

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A construction of a block of materials in a curved form used as a support, for example of a bridge, floor, or roof. The simplest arches are semicircular. Pointed arches appeared in Moorish and Gothic ...
arch-band

arch-band  

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Raised band or strip (arc-doubleau) below the soffit of an arch or vault.
Arnold von Westfalen

Arnold von Westfalen  

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(c. 1425–80).German architect. As Oberlandbaumeister he directed building-works in numerous Electoral properties in Saxony. His major works were the Albrechtsburg (1471–1525—one of the most important ...
art and architecture: Armenian

art and architecture: Armenian  

Medieval Armenia’s visual culture bears strikingly distinctive features as well as evidence of close contact with neighbouring traditions. Art in the region is generally categorized into three ...
art and architecture: Cluniac

art and architecture: Cluniac  

For three hundred years after its foundation in 909/910, the Burgundian abbey of Cluny was perhaps the most important monastic house in western Christendom, with, at its height, over 1,400 ...
art and architecture: Coptic

art and architecture: Coptic  

The term ‘Coptic’ is an Arabicized derivation of the Greek word for Egyptian, Aiguptios, and as such was employed by the Arabs to describe those Egyptians who remained Christian after ...
art and architecture: crusader

art and architecture: crusader  

(12th century) Crusader art and architecture are defined by location, content, and a typical blend of local and imported styles. Historical and geographical conditions in the Latin kingdom of ...
art and architecture: early Christian

art and architecture: early Christian  

In its most common definition, the art and architecture of the Roman Empire from the 4th through the 6th century. Chronological boundaries tend to vary depending on preferences of periodization ...
art and architecture: Gothic

art and architecture: Gothic  

With the advent of the Gothic style, architecture became a leading form of artistic expression during the late MA. Despite regional peculiarities it shared a common language of forms and ...
art and architecture: Romanesque

art and architecture: Romanesque  

Term describing art produced in Europe between roughly 1000 and 1200.1. Definition2. Architecture3. Monumental decoration4. Portable arts5. Secular and military works6. Artists and aesthetics1. ...
art and architecture: synagogue

art and architecture: synagogue  

Although documentary evidence attests to the existence of early medieval synagogues, archaeological remains and buildings that allow an understanding of their appearance exist only from the high MA. ...
art, Franciscan

art, Franciscan  

Even before the death of the order’s founder, Francis of Assisi (1226), the Franciscan order had expanded first around the Mediterranean and subsequently throughout Europe. It rapidly recognized and ...
atrium

atrium  

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The main court in a Roman house. The word is also used of the forecourt attached to early Christian churches; it usually consisted of a colonnaded quadrangle with a fountain in the middle.
Babylonian architecture

Babylonian architecture  

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Mesopotamian architecture c. 4000–1250 bc. Early inhabitants of the region were the Sumerians, who, as early as the fourth millennium, had evolved a sophisticated architecture using brick, and who ...

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