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apanage

apanage  

[OF, apaner; ML, appanere ‘to provide with sustenance’ [lit. ‘bread’]] The apanage was a grant from French sovereigns to younger princes who had little possibility of advancing to the throne. ...
Bianchi e Neri

Bianchi e Neri  

(‘Whites and Blacks’)Tuscan Guelph factions of the beginning of the 14th century. They were chiefly associated with Florence and linked to the antagonism between the families of the Cerchi ...
Bourbon

Bourbon  

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The surname of a branch of the royal family of France. The Bourbons ruled France from 1589, when Henry IV succeeded to the throne, until the monarchy was overthrown in 1848, and reached the peak of ...
Burgundy

Burgundy  

A region and former duchy of east central France, centred on Dijon. Under a series of strong dukes Burgundy achieved considerable independence from imperial control in the later Middle Ages, before ...
Capetians

Capetians  

Name of the dynasty ruling France 987–1328, founded by Hugh Capet (938–96), king of France 987–96.
Chambre des Comptes

Chambre des Comptes  

Central financial institution of the French monarchy, imitated in French principalities, ‘imported’ in the Burgundian Netherlands by the Valois dukes of Burgundy (1386: Chambre des Comptes in Lille). ...
Clement

Clement  

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Religion
(1342–1394)In the absence of official recognition by the Roman Church, Clement VII remains in the eyes of history the first of the Popes of Avignon to inaugurate the period ...
Clouet

Clouet  

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Painters of Netherlandish origin, active in France. Jean (c. 1480–1541?) is first clearly documented in 1516 working for François I. He eventually became the King's chief painter with the title ...
Compiègne

Compiègne  

Northeast of Paris, its royal palace dated from the Merovingian era; Charles II ‘the Bald’ used it as a primary seat. It became a principal royal residence in the 10th ...
Du Cerceau

Du Cerceau  

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A family of French architects and engineers. Jacques Androuet the Elder (c.1515–1585) was an architect, decorator, engraver, and publisher. During his life he was famous as an engraver with a ...
Enguerran de Marigny

Enguerran de Marigny  

(c.1275–1315)Counsellor to Philip IV ‘the Fair’, functioning as negotiator and chamberlain, eventually controlling finances and governance. Displeased with the vast power afforded Marigny, upon ...
Fontainebleau

Fontainebleau  

Near Paris, hunting grounds for French royalty, with a chapel established by Louis VII. It was the site of a French–English truce agreed by Charles IV and Edward II, as ...
France

France  

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History
One of Europe's most centralized states, with a distinctive and influential cultureFrance has the largest territory in Western Europe. Around two-thirds is lowlands, chiefly to the north and west, ...
Frederick Ashton

Frederick Ashton  

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(b Guayaquil, Ecuador, 1904; d Eye, Suffolk, 1988).Eng. choreographer. Associated with SW (now Royal) Ballet from 1936. Ballets incl. Symphonic Variations, La Fille mal gardée, Façade, Horoscope, ...
French Italian wars

French Italian wars  

(1494–1559).The invasion of Italy in 1494 by King Charles VIII of France (1483–98) sparked a series of wars that sporadically involved all of western Europe. Charles claimed the kingdom ...
House of Burgundy

House of Burgundy  

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French ducal dynasty that included several leading art patrons in the 14th and 15th centuries. Burgundy is a historic region in east central France, but it has given its name to several larger ...
House of Orléans

House of Orléans  

The title of duke of Orléans was created by the Valois king Philip VI of France for his son Philip, who died without issue. The second duke was Louis I ...
Jean Fouquet

Jean Fouquet  

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(c. 1420–81).French painter. Fouquet, the leading French painter of the 15th century, was born and mostly worked in Tours, though perhaps trained in Paris. According to Filarete he was ...
Jean Lemaire de Belges

Jean Lemaire de Belges  

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History
(1473–before 1524) One of the principal writers of the tradition of Grande Rhétorique.Jean Lemaire was born in Belges (Bavay) in Hainaut and studied with Jean Molinet. A poet and ...
Jean Perréal

Jean Perréal  

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(c.1450×60–1530).Painter, illuminator, designer, and architect, the most renowned French artist of his time. He was painter and valet de chambre to three French kings, Charles VIII, Louis XII, and ...

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