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Andrew Fletcher

Andrew Fletcher  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
(1655–1716).Politician. Fletcher of Saltoun was taught by Gilbert Burnet, who later described him as ‘a most violent republican and extremely passionate’. He represented East Lothian at the ...
Anglo-Irish ascendancy

Anglo-Irish ascendancy  

The term ‘protestant ascendancy’ appears to have been coined in 1782. However, the origins of this interest lay with the land confiscations of the 17th cent. The Ulster plantation (1608–9) brought a ...
Arthur Dobbs

Arthur Dobbs  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
(1689–1765).Ulster landowner, member of the Irish House of Commons, from 1733 surveyor-general of Ireland, Dobbs actively pursued British colonial interests overseas. His 1731 tract, Memorial on the ...
ascendancy

ascendancy  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
A term generally used to refer to the Protestant upper classes of Ireland in the 18th cent. and later. The defeat of the Jacobites [see Williamite War] in 1689–91 left ...
Bank of England

Bank of England  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The central bank of the UK. It was established in 1694 as a private bank by London merchants in order to lend money to the state and to deal with the national debt. It came under public ownership in ...
Belfast

Belfast  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
Is the second largest city in Ireland, and the economic and political capital of Northern Ireland. Although the Normans established a fort at Belfast in the 12th cent., a substantial town only ...
borough

borough  

The word ‘borough’ (‘burgh’ in Scotland) has caused endless confusion. The Old English (Anglo‐Saxon) terms burg, burh, and byrig were used originally for fortified places. By 1086, however, Domesday ...
Breconshire

Breconshire  

Border county of south Wales taking its name from the Welsh kingdom of Brycheiniog. Its Norman successor was the lordship of Brecon. At the Act of Union with England in 1536 the lordships of Brecon ...
Caernarfonshire

Caernarfonshire  

County of north Wales. It was part of the tribal territory of the Celtic Venedotae, later the Welsh kingdom of Gwynedd. ‘Arfon’ is the land over against Môn (Anglesey) and the county's name is ...
Cardiganshire

Cardiganshire  

A west‐coast county of Wales bordering the Irish Sea. In 1974 it became the district of Ceredigion in the county of Dyfed, but in 1996 was reconstituted as a county, retaining the name Ceredigion. ...
Carmarthenshire

Carmarthenshire  

County of south‐west Wales. It was part of the early Welsh kingdom of Dyfed and its core became the heart of the later kingdom of Deheubarth. At the Norman Conquest, a royal lordship was created ...
Catholic emancipation

Catholic emancipation  

Was achieved by an Act of Parliament of 1829, enabling Roman catholics in Britain to participate fully in public life by abolishing the Test and Corporation Acts. O'Connell's electoral success in the ...
Catholic Relief Acts

Catholic Relief Acts  

A series of Acts freeing RCs from civil disabilities. By that of 1778 RCs were allowed to own land on taking an oath not involving the denial of their religion; in 1791 RC worship and schools were ...
Charles Cornwallis

Charles Cornwallis  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
(1738–1805) commanding general of British forces in the southern campaign in the Revolutionary War, born in London. He was the 2nd earl Cornwallis, later marquis. In the Revolutionary War, Cornwallis ...
colonial and post-colonial models

colonial and post-colonial models  

Ireland has been described as England's oldest colony. While the colonial origins of the connection between England and Ireland are not in doubt, the extent to which colonial models illuminate the ...
Commercial Propositions

Commercial Propositions  

Negotiated 1784–5, an attempt to rationalize the laws governing trade between Great Britain and Ireland by reducing or eliminating tariffs. In addition to removing anomalies left by the settlement of ...
Court of Session

Court of Session  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
A Scottish court corresponding to the Supreme Court of Judicature in England and Wales. It consists of an Outer House (corresponding to the High Court) and an Inner House (corresponding to the Court ...
customs and excise

customs and excise  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
Duties charged on goods (both home-produced and imported) to raise revenue for governments. In England customs date from the reign of Edward I, when duties were raised on wool and leather. Tunnage ...
Daniel O'Connell

Daniel O'Connell  

(1775–1847)Irish nationalist leader and social reformer. His election to Parliament in 1828 forced the British government to grant Catholic Emancipation in order to enable him to take his seat in the ...
Denbighshire

Denbighshire  

A county of north‐east Wales created in 1536 at the Act of Union with England. Its core was Perfeddwlad, east of the Conwy, together with Dyffryn Clwyd. These, after the Norman Conquest, constituted ...

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