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Abwehr

Abwehr  

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Overview Page
(Ger.: Abwehr, defence),the German intelligence and counter-intelligence service, 1920–45. The Abwehr served several political masters, being founded, against the spirit of the Versailles Treaty, in ...
Arab-Israeli Conflict

Arab-Israeli Conflict  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Ongoing conflict between Arabs and Israel over Palestinian territory. The origins of the conflict lie in the Balfour Declaration (1917), which promised “a national home for the Jewish people,” and in ...
Archduke of Austria Charles

Archduke of Austria Charles  

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Overview Page
(1771–1847),dynamic military leader and reformer and a reminder of how the Habsburgs came to be great in the first place. The third son of Emperor Leopold II, his first ...
Armistice Day

Armistice Day  

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Overview Page
The anniversary of the armistice of 11 November 1918, now replaced by Remembrance Sunday in the UK and Veterans Day in the US.
Battle of Adrianople

Battle of Adrianople  

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Overview Page
(9 August 378 ad)The Roman city of Adrianople, 480 km (300 miles) west of Constantinople, was the scene of the defeat of the Roman forces by the Visigoths. Emperor Valens, who had hoped to prevent ...
Battle of Sedan

Battle of Sedan  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
A battle fought in 1870 near the town of Sedan in NE France, in which the Prussian army defeated a smaller French army under Napoleon III, opening the way for a Prussian advance on Paris and marking ...
Chaco War

Chaco War  

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Overview Page
Subject:
History
(1932–35)A conflict between Paraguay and Bolivia. The Gran Chaco, an extensive lowland plain, had been an object of dispute between the two countries since the early 19th century, but Bolivia's final ...
civil wars

civil wars  

1642–51.In 1629 Charles I dismissed Parliament, resolving never to call another. He might have succeeded but for the problem of the multiple kingdoms. During the 1630s he decided to bring Scottish ...
Constantine I

Constantine I  

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Overview Page
‘the Great’ (c. ad 272/3–337), b. in the Balkan province of Moesia, was son of Constantius I and Helena. When Constantius, now senior Augustus, died at Eburacum (306), his troops proclaimed ...
Geneva and Hague Conventions

Geneva and Hague Conventions  

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Overview Page
International efforts to regulate the conduct of warfare and armed conflict are often understood to consist of two main codes of legal and humanitarian thinking: Geneva and Hague. Each approach ...
Greek civil war

Greek civil war  

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Overview Page
(1944–5 and 1946–9),a two-stage conflict in which Greek communists tried but failed to take over Greece. The German occupation of Greece during WW II had been resisted by two ...
Gustavus II Adolphus

Gustavus II Adolphus  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
(1594–1632)King of Sweden (1611–32). He was the grandson of Gustavus I and is generally recognized as Sweden's greatest ruler. His partnership with the Chancellor, Oxenstierna, bore fruit in ...
Hideyoshi

Hideyoshi  

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Overview Page
Subject:
History
(1536–98)Japanese warrior. He continued Oda Nobunaga's work of unifying the country that had been fragmented by the feuds between daimyo. Between 1582 and 1591, by a mixture of military strategy and ...
Hundred Years War

Hundred Years War  

This potentially misleading term denotes the series of conflicts between England and France between 1337 and 1453. Edward III's claim to the French throne, via his mother Isabella of France ...
laws of War

laws of War  

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Overview Page
International rules and conventions that limit belligerents' action.
Peloponnesian wars

Peloponnesian wars  

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Overview Page
(c.460–446, 431–404 bc).The first of these periods of warfare, sometimes called the first Peloponnesian war, although the second is never so designated, was sparked by Athenian aggression in the ...
Seven Years' War

Seven Years' War  

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Overview Page
Subject:
History
1756–63.In the years immediately after the War of the Austrian Succession, a ‘diplomatic revolution’ took place in Europe. France and Austria, with support from Russia, Sweden, and Saxony, aligned ...
Siege of Liège

Siege of Liège  

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Overview Page
The Belgian city of Liège has figured prominently and frequently in wars from the Middle Ages to the 20th century. In a border location and an important manufacturing centre with ...
Tet Offensive

Tet Offensive  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
(29 January–25 February 1968)An offensive launched in the Vietnam War by Vietcong and regular North Vietnamese army units against US and South Vietnamese forces. In a surprise attack timed to ...
War of the Austrian Succession

War of the Austrian Succession  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
A group of several related conflicts (1740–8), involving most of the states of Europe, that were triggered by the death of the Emperor Charles VI and the accession of his daughter Maria Theresa in ...

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