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battle of Towton

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battle of Barnet

battle of Barnet  

1471.*Warwick, Edward IV's great ally at Towton, turned against him in 1470 and drove him out of the kingdom. Returning in March 1471, Edward landed near Hull. Warwick, in possession of London, ...
battle of Hedgeley Moor

battle of Hedgeley Moor  

1464.Despite her crushing defeat at Towton in 1461, Queen Margaret retained a following in the north of England and was given assistance by the Scots. In the spring of 1464 they raised a substantial ...
Edward IV

Edward IV  

(1442–83),king of England (1461–70, 1471–83). The tall and handsome ‘Rose of Rouen’, born in that city, the eldest son of Richard, duke of York, gained the throne of England in March 1461 when he was ...
John Morton

John Morton  

(c. 1420–1500).Cardinal. Morton was one of the greatest ecclesiastical statesmen of the 15th cent. A useful ecclesiastical lawyer, he advanced rapidly under the patronage of Archbishop Bourchier but, ...
2nd duke of Norfolk, Thomas Howard

2nd duke of Norfolk, Thomas Howard  

(1443–1524).Norfolk had a remarkable political and military career at the highest level, despite a bad start. His father was a prominent Yorkist, who fought at Towton, was created duke ...
Richard Welles

Richard Welles  

(d. 1470).Lionel, Lord Welles, and his son Richard, Lord Willoughby, fought against Edward IV at Towton in 1461, when Lionel was killed. By fighting for Edward against Lancastrians in 1464, Richard ...
Richard Woodville Rivers, 1st Earl

Richard Woodville Rivers, 1st Earl  

(c. 1410–69).Father of Elizabeth, queen of Edward IV. He was raised to the peerage in 1448 on account of his marriage to Bedford's wealthy widow. Following distinguished service in ...
Sir John Fortescue

Sir John Fortescue  

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(c.1395–c.1477) English jurist and political theorist active during the reigns of Henry VI and Edward IV.Educated at Lincoln’s Inn, he was created serjeant-at-law in 1438 and king’s serjeant in ...
1st duke of Norfolk, John Howard

1st duke of Norfolk, John Howard  

(d. 1485).Howard was a retainer of the 3rd duke and perhaps on his nomination the first Yorkist sheriff of Norfolk in 1461, shortly before Edward IV knighted him on the battlefield of Towton. ...
1st earl of Northumberland, John Neville

1st earl of Northumberland, John Neville  

(c. 1431–71).The third son of Richard Neville, earl of Salisbury, John fought alongside his father at Blore Heath and was attainted in 1459, but was restored, created Baron Montagu, and appointed ...
Wars of the Roses

Wars of the Roses  

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(1455–85)A protracted struggle for the throne of England, lasting for 30 years of sporadic fighting. These civil wars grew out of the bitter rivalry between two aspirants to the throne – Edmund ...

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