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Themistocles

(c. 524—459 bc) Athenian statesman

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Aristides

Aristides  

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An Athenian statesman and general of the 5th century bc, known as Aristides the Just. He commanded the Athenian army at the battle of Plataea, but came into conflict with Themistocles and was ...
battle of Salamis

battle of Salamis  

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(480 bc)A naval battle fought in the Aegean Sea during the Greek-Persian wars. Themistocles, the Greek commander, lured the Persian fleet of Xerxes, the Persian king, into the narrow waters between ...
Cimon

Cimon  

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(Gk. Kimōn),rich and noble 5th‐cent. bc Athenian, son of Miltiades and the daughter of the Thracian king Olorus; Cimon and Thucydides (2), son of an Olorus, were thus related. His sister Elpinīcē ...
endogamy

endogamy  

[De]A system in which an individual may only marry another person from within the same kin group, clan, or tribe.
Eurybiades

Eurybiades  

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Presumably one of ‘the first in birth and wealth’ (Herodotus 7. 134. 2) among the Spartans, commanded the ‘Hellenic League’ fleet at the battles of Artemisium and Salamis (480 bc). ...
Greek biography

Greek biography  

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Biography in antiquity was not a rigidly defined genre. Bios, ‘life’, or bioi, ‘lives’, spanned a range of types of writing. So the boundaries with neighbouring genres—the encomium, the biographical ...
Greek portraiture

Greek portraiture  

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Greek portraiture proper begins after the Persian invasion of 480. The Tyrannicides (see critius) were generic representations of men long dead, but the Themistocles from Ostia (a copy) modifies a ...
Greek-Persian wars

Greek-Persian wars  

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Conflicts that dominated the history of the eastern Mediterranean in the first half of the 5th century bc. In 499 bc the Greek cities of Ionia in Asia Minor revolted from the Persian empire. With ...
Horae

Horae  

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Goddesses of the seasons. Hesiod makes them daughters of Zeus and of Themis (‘Divine Law’) and names them Eunomia (‘Good Order’), Dike (‘Justice’), and Eirēnē (‘Peace’). They guard the gates of ...
Ion

Ion  

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An unusually versatile poet and prose author, seems to have been born in the 480s bc and to have come to Athens about 466. He was dead by 421, when Aristophanes (1) paid a graceful tribute to him at ...
Magnesia ad Maeandrum

Magnesia ad Maeandrum  

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A city of Ionia (see Ionians) on a tributary of the Maeander, inland from Ephesus. Colonized by the Magnesians (see Magnetes), it and Magnesia (2) ad Sipylum both commanded rich ...
Medism

Medism  

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(rarely Persism, though see Strabo 14. 657: the ‘med-’ root is a linguistic fossil from the era of Cyrus (1)'s conquest of Lydia) is a term whose application is normally ...
Moschion

Moschion  

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An Athenian tragic poet, probably of the 3rd cent. bc, is known almost exclusively from fragments quoted by Stobaeus. He wrote a Telephus and two historical plays, Themistocles (see Themistocles) ...
naukrariai

naukrariai  

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Early divisions of the population of Attica. The name used regularly to be derived from naukraros as ‘ship-chief’, implying a connection with the Athenian navy, and although alternatives have been ...
ostracism

ostracism  

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In Athens in the 5th cent. bc was a way to exile a citizen for ten years. Each year in the sixth prytany (see prytaneis) the question whether an ostracism should be held that year was put to the ...
Persian Wars

Persian Wars  

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The two Persian expeditions against Greece in 490 and 480/79 bc. The origins of the conflict go back to mainland Greek involvement in the rebellion of the Asiatic Greeks against Persian rule, earlier ...
Phrynichus

Phrynichus  

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An early Athenian tragic poet; see tragedy, greek. The Suda says that he won his first victory between 511 and 508 bc and was the first to introduce female characters in tragedy. Themistocles was his ...
Piraeus

Piraeus  

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The great harbour complex of Athens, is a rocky limestone peninsula some 7 km. (4–5 mi.) SW of Athens, which Themistocles began to fortify in 493/2 as a base for Athens' rapidly expanding fleet in ...
reciprocity

reciprocity  

The principle that one will treat someone in a particular way if one is so treated by them. This is relevant under European Union law in relation to agreements that the EU has with non‐EU countries, ...
Salamis

Salamis  

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An island in the Saronic Gulf in Greece, to the west of Athens. The strait between the island and the mainland was the scene in 480 bc of a crushing defeat of the Persian fleet under Xerxes I by the ...

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