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Adornment, Personal

Adornment, Personal  

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Together with clothing, personal adornment was essential for the construction of personal identity in ancient Greece and Rome. The evidence for personal adornment can be reconstructed from Greek and ...
agricultural technology

agricultural technology  

Broadly defined, agricultural technology involves the production, processing, and marketing of a constellation of edible and non-edible commodities produced on farms. These commodities ranged from ...
Akhmīm

Akhmīm  

(Panopolis, Πανω̑ν πόλις), metropolis of the Panopolite nome of Upper Egypt, a bishopric from the early 4th C. A church is mentioned in a text of 295–300 a.d. (P. Gen. ...
al- Fustat

al- Fustat  

Old Cairo, first capital of the conquering Arab armies of Egypt. Built in 643 on the eastern side of the Nile River. Contains the oldest mosque in Egypt, Jami Amr. Evolved into a commercial, ...
American Arts and Crafts Movement

American Arts and Crafts Movement  

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A decorative style popular in late 19th- and early 20th-century America, which had its origins in the earlier British Arts and Crafts Movement and the ideas and writings of art critic John Ruskin ...
Apollōnius

Apollōnius  

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(3rd cent. bc) served Ptolemy 1 II as chief minister in Egypt and is best known as holder of a large crown‐gift estate in the Fayūm. It formed the centre of a series of agricultural experiments (in ...
applied art

applied art  

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Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between ...
appliqué

appliqué  

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[Ge]A decorative figure or motif made separately, usually in a mould, and applied or fixed to the surface of a pot before slip‐coating and fitting.
art and architecture: Abbasid

art and architecture: Abbasid  

The Abbasid caliphate (750–1258) is the second Islamic dynasty. The Abbasids succeeded the Damascus-based Umayyad dynasty (661–750) and moved the focal point of the Islamic political and cultural ...
art and architecture: Almoravid

art and architecture: Almoravid  

The Almoravids (al-Murabitun in Arabic) ruled Morocco and al-Andalus (Muslim Spain) between c.1062 and 1150. Due to the Almoravids’ adherence to the conservative Malikite school of Islamic law, their ...
art and architecture: Coptic

art and architecture: Coptic  

The term ‘Coptic’ is an Arabicized derivation of the Greek word for Egyptian, Aiguptios, and as such was employed by the Arabs to describe those Egyptians who remained Christian after ...
art and architecture: Islamic

art and architecture: Islamic  

The term Islamic as it is often applied to art and architecture describes the art and architecture created for the service of Islam as well as secular art and architecture ...
art and architecture: Mamluk

art and architecture: Mamluk  

(1250–1517)Military slaves of Turkish descent who ruled Egypt, Syria, and Palestine. They are considered among the greatest patrons of the arts in the history of Islam, and the cities ...
art and architecture: Merovingian

art and architecture: Merovingian  

The cultural productions of the Frankish tribes settling in parts of what are now modern France, Belgium, and western Germany between the 5th and 8th centuries. Surviving examples of elaborate ...
art and architecture: Ottonian

art and architecture: Ottonian  

As befits a term derived from the political sphere, Ottonian art and architecture refers to those buildings and works of art produced in the Germanic lands (and surrounding areas) that ...
art, Anglo-Saxon

art, Anglo-Saxon  

The art of England from the early MA through the mid 11th century, though in the field of manuscript illumination, it is generally restricted to the late 9th through the ...
artisan

artisan  

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A skilled craft worker. The term was used particularly in the 19th century. Artisans provided the leadership of working-class political reform groups.
artisans and craftwork

artisans and craftwork  

From the early to the late MA in both western Europe and Islamic lands, artisans became increasingly specialized, producing both ordinary and luxury goods for local consumption and as commodities ...
Arts and Crafts Movement

Arts and Crafts Movement  

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An English decorative arts movement of the second half of the 19th century which sought to revive the ideal of craftsmanship in an age of increasing mechanization and mass production. William Morris ...
automation

automation  

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Subject:
History
The use of automatic machinery and systems, particularly those manufacturing or data‐processing systems which require little or no human intervention in their normal operation. During the 19th ...

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