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Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury

Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
(1621–83)English statesman. He entered Parliament in 1640 as a royalist supporter, but changed sides in 1643, eventually becoming a member of Cromwell's council of state. In 1660 he was one of the ...
Cameronians

Cameronians  

Known as the ‘Society people’ until 1690, these covenanters of south‐west Scotland followed the extensive field preaching of Richard Cameron (1648–80) and Donald Cargill (c. 1627–81). After Cameron ...
Catholic emancipation

Catholic emancipation  

Was achieved by an Act of Parliament of 1829, enabling Roman catholics in Britain to participate fully in public life by abolishing the Test and Corporation Acts. O'Connell's electoral success in the ...
Charles II

Charles II  

(1630–85),king of England, Ireland, and Scotland (acceded 1649, restored 1660–85). Charles received his practical education in 1648–51 when he learnt how to adapt to rapidly changing circumstances, ...
Declaration against Transubstantiation

Declaration against Transubstantiation  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
A declaration imposed between 1673 and 1829 on all holders of civil or military office.
dispensing power

dispensing power  

Was the prerogative or discretion claimed by the monarch of exempting from the operation of statutes in particular cases. The Long Parliament, in its Nineteen Propositions, accused Charles I of ...
dissent

dissent  

(nonconformity). Though dissenting sects could trace some of their doctrines to well before the Reformation, for example to the lollards, pre‐Reformation heterodoxy is usually termed schism or ...
Ernest Augustus

Ernest Augustus  

(1771–1851).Ernest Augustus, fifth son of George III, had an eventful life. At 15 he was sent to the University of Göttingen in Hanover and in 1790 was commissioned in the Hanoverian army. A brave ...
High Churchmen

High Churchmen  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
The group in the Church of England which gives a high place to the authority and antiquity of the church, to the episcopate, and to sacraments. The title is first attested at the end of the 17th ...
James II

James II  

King of England and Ireland, James VII of Scotland, b. 14 Oct. 1633, 2nd s. of Charles I and Henrietta Maria; acc. 6 Feb. 1685; deemed to have abdic. 11 Dec. 1688; m. (1) Anne, da. of Edward Hyde ...
Lord John Russell

Lord John Russell  

(1792–1878).Prime minister. A small, cocky man, Russell was the third son of the duke of Bedford and was educated at Westminster and Edinburgh University. He entered Parliament in 1818, sitting for ...
Occasional Conformity Act

Occasional Conformity Act  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
1711.This Act prevented nonconformists from taking communion in an Anglican church to qualify for national and municipal office according to the Corporation and Test Acts. Three previous attempts ...
parliamentary reform

parliamentary reform  

Is a general term covering a variety of proposals and changes which need to be carefully distinguished. Alterations to the composition, powers, procedure, and structure of Parliament have continued ...
penal laws

penal laws  

Various statutes passed in Britain and Ireland during the 16th and 17th centuries that imposed harsh restrictions on Roman Catholics. People participating in Catholic services could be fined and ...
Test Acts

Test Acts   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
865 words

Anti-Catholicism was endemic in seventeenth-century England's deeply Protestant religious culture, in which connections were regularly made between “popery,” absolutist kingship,

Thomas Clifford Clifford, 1st Baron

Thomas Clifford Clifford, 1st Baron  

(1630–73).Clifford was a Devon gentleman determined to make a mark after the Restoration. Elected in 1660, he spoke frequently and in December 1660 was appointed a gentleman of the privy chamber. ...
Toleration Act

Toleration Act  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
An act of 1689 granting freedom of worship to dissenters (excluding Roman Catholics and Unitarians) on certain conditions. Its real purpose was to unite all Protestants under William III against the ...
William Wake

William Wake  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(1657–1737), Abp. of Canterbury from 1716. From 1717 to 1720 he engaged in negotiations with Gallican leaders, notably L. E. Dupin, on a plan for reunion between the C of E and the French Church. ...
William Warburton

William Warburton  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
(1698–1779),rose to be bishop of Gloucester in 1759. He was much engaged in theological controversy, writing with vigour and arrogance. He was author of The Divine Legation of Moses (1738–41), A View ...

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