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académie

académie  

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A French term for a private art school, several of which flourished in Paris in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The term atelier libre has also been used to refer to such establishments. ...
Acmeism

Acmeism  

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Literature
A short‐lived (c.1911–21) but significant movement in early 20th‐century Russian poetry, aiming for precision and clarity in opposition to the alleged vagueness of the preceding Symbolist movement. ...
Adolphe Retté

Adolphe Retté  

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Literature
(1863–1930).An ardent supporter of the French Symbolist movement, to which he contributed poetry (Cloches en la nuit, 1889), prose (Thulé des brumes, 1894), and literary and art criticism. He ...
Akseli Gallen-Kallela

Akseli Gallen-Kallela  

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(b Pori, 26 Apr. 1865; d Stockholm, 7 Mar. 1931).Finnish painter, graphic artist, designer, and architect. A major figure in the Art Nouveau and Symbolist movements, Gallen-Kallela travelled widely ...
Albert Aurier

Albert Aurier  

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Literature
(1865–93).In his short life Aurier established himself as the leading authority on the visual arts within the French Symbolist movement. A Neoplatonist and admirer of Mallarmé, he promoted Gauguin ...
Albert Mockel

Albert Mockel  

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Literature
(1866–1945).Belgian poet and critic, Mockel founded in 1886 La Wallonie, which, in the seven years of its existence, became one of the major journals of the Symbolist movement. His ...
Albert Samain

Albert Samain  

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Literature
(1858–1900).The acclaim which greeted the publication in 1893 of Au jardin de l'Infante made Samain one of the most popular French poets of the late 19th c. Heavily influenced ...
Aldo Palazzeschi

Aldo Palazzeschi  

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Literature
(1885–1974).Florentine poet and novelist who made distinctively whimsical and ironic contributions to crepuscolarismo and Futurism. His privately published early poetry reworks symbolist and ...
Aleksandr Deineka

Aleksandr Deineka  

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(1899–1969).Soviet painter and graphic artist. Deineka served with the Red Army and studied at Kharkov Art School 1915–17 and Vkhutemas (Higher Artistic and Technical Studios) 1921–5. In 1925 he ...
Alexander Blok

Alexander Blok  

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Literature
(b. St Petersburg, 28 Nov. 1880; d. Petrograd, 7 Aug. 1921)Poet and playwright. His first book of poetry was published in 1904, and he became the leading figure in ...
Alfred Jarry

Alfred Jarry  

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(1873–1907),French poet and dramatist, whose Ubu-roi is now considered the founder-play of the modern avant-garde theatre. Written when Jarry was 15 years old and first performed in 1888 as ...
Alphonse Mucha

Alphonse Mucha  

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(b Ivančice, Moravia, 24 July 1860; d Prague, 14 July 1939).Czech painter and designer, active for much of his career in Paris. He settled there in 1888, and it ...
Amelia Rosselli

Amelia Rosselli  

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Literature
(1930–96).Perhaps the most important Italian woman poet of the 20th c. She was the daughter of an English mother and Carlo Rosselli, the prominent anti-Fascist assassinated near Paris on ...
Anatoly Lunacharsky

Anatoly Lunacharsky  

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(1875–1933)Russian/Soviet dramatist, critic, and the Soviet Union's first cultural commissar (1917–29). Lunacharsky's tastes were cosmopolitan; in a book of essays (1908), he rubbed shoulders with ...
André Gide

André Gide  

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Literature
(1869–1951)French novelist, essayist, critic, and dramatist. His fiction, interesting both for its formal experimentation and its teasing exploration of sexuality and morality, includes a number of ...
Andrea Zanzotto

Andrea Zanzotto  

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Literature
(1921– )is widely recognized as Italy's greatest living poet. He was born near Treviso in the village of Pieve di Soligo, where he still lives and where he worked for ...
Andrei Bely

Andrei Bely  

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Literature
(1880–1934)Russian novelist, poet, and literary theorist, born in Moscow, who became a key figure in the Russian symbolist movement. In 1904 he met Aleksandr Blok, with whom he was ...
Antoine Wiertz

Antoine Wiertz  

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(b Dinant, 22 Feb. 1806; d Brussels, 18 June 1865).Belgian painter, one of the great eccentrics in the history of art. In 1832 he won the Belgian Prix de Rome and when he visited Italy in 1834 he was ...
Antonia Pozzi

Antonia Pozzi  

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Literature
(1912–38).Milanese poet, who committed suicide soon after completing her thesis (on Flaubert) at Milan University. Her poems, which she had been writing since the age of 17, were published ...
Arnold Böcklin

Arnold Böcklin  

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(b Basle, 19 Oct. 1827; d San Domenico, nr. Fiesole, 16 Jan. 1901).Swiss painter. With Hodler he ranks as the most important Swiss painter of the 19th century, and ...

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