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symbiosis

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amensalism

amensalism  

An association between two species that is detrimental to one of the species but has no effect on the other. A common example of amensalism is the release of chemical toxins by plants that can ...
amoeba

amoeba  

Any single-celled eukaryote that is naked and changes shape due to the irregular extension and retraction of pseudopodia.
amphibiotic

amphibiotic  

1 Applied to an organism that can live with a host organism either parasitically or mutualistically. See mutualism; parasitism.2 Living in water (larval form) and later on land (adult form).
Anabaena

Anabaena  

A genus of filamentous cyanobacteria (section IV) in which the filaments when viewed under the microscope resemble strings of beads. Thick-walled, clear heterocysts can be seen at intervals along or ...
Bacteria

Bacteria  

One of three superkingdoms (domains) of cellular organisms, the others being Archaea and Eukarya. Bacteria are unicellular and anucleate i.e. prokaryotes. They embrace a great diversity of forms, ...
co-adaptation

co-adaptation  

The development and maintenance of advantageous genetic traits, so that mutual relationships can persist. Predator–prey and flower–pollinator relationships often exhibit examples of co-adaptation, ...
co-evolution

co-evolution  

A process in which the simultaneous evolution of two or more organisms, such as a predator and its prey, is dependent on or influenced by their mutual interaction or relationship.
colon

colon  

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n. the main part of the large intestine, which consists of four sections – the ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid colons (see illustration). The colon has no digestive function but it ...
commensal

commensal  

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n. an organism that lives in close association with another of a different species without either harming or benefiting it. For example, some microorganisms living in the gut obtain both food and a ...
commensalism

commensalism  

The interaction between species populations in which one species, the commensal, benefits from another, sometimes called the host, but this other is not affected. Compare mutualism and parasitism.
conjunctive symbiosis

conjunctive symbiosis  

Symbiosis that involves the union of 2 different species into a single body (e.g. the mycobiont and phycobiont in a lichen). Compare disjunctive symbiosis.
cooperation

cooperation  

In animals, mutually beneficial behaviour that involves several individuals (e.g. collaborative hunting, and care of the young). Co-operation may involve altruism. Co-operation among members of ...
cooperative behaviour

cooperative behaviour  

Behaviour in which members of a species combine in an activity, such as hunting, anti-predator behaviour, or care of the young, and in which there is coordination among individuals, to their mutual ...
cyanobacteria

cyanobacteria  

Bacteria, also known as blue green algae, that contain chlorophyll and can photosynthesize. They can form large coloured mats on the surface of lakes and rivers. One species causes a red tide.
defence

defence  

Any behaviour that reduces the chances of one animal being harmed by another animal. Defensive adaptations may be static, such as the spines of a hedgehog (Erinaceus sp.), or active, such as running ...
dinoflagellate

dinoflagellate  

A division (Dinomastigota) of protists that are heterotrophs but closely allied to brown algae and diatoms (they are were formerly classified as algae). Many have brown or yellow chromoplasts ...
Dinoflagellida

Dinoflagellida  

; subphylum Sarcomastigophora, superclass Mastigophora)An order of protozoons that are heterotrophs but closely allied to brown algae and diatoms (they are sometimes classified as algae). Many have ...
disjunctive symbiosis

disjunctive symbiosis  

A symbiotic relationship (see symbiosis) between 2 species in which there is no physical union. Compare conjunctive symbiosis.
ectosymbiont

ectosymbiont  

A partner in a symbiotic relationship that remains outside the tissues and cells of the other partner, often occupying a body cavity; e.g. one of the cellulose‐metabolizing microorganisms occurring ...
endophyte

endophyte  

An organism that lives at least part of its life cycle within a host plant, in a parasitic or symbiotic relationship.

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