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Ableman v. Booth; United States v. Booth

Ableman v. Booth; United States v. Booth  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
21 How. (62 U.S.) 506 (1859), argued 19 Jan. 1859, decided 7 Mar. 1859 by vote of 9 to 0; Taney for the Court. In the spring of 1854, Benjamin S. Garland, a slaveowner from Missouri, went to ...
Abrams v. United States

Abrams v. United States  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
• 250 U.S. 616 (1919)• Vote: 7–2• For the Court: Clarke• Dissenting: Holmes and Brandeis• 250 U.S. 616 (1919)• Vote: 7–2• For the Court: Clarke• Dissenting: Holmes and Brandeis[...]
Academic Freedom.

Academic Freedom.  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
The American tradition of academic freedom drew inspiration from the German concept of Lehrfreiheit, the statutory rights of professors in state universities to teach and do research freely. ...
Adkins v. Children's Hospital

Adkins v. Children's Hospital  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
(1923).During the early twentieth century, Progressives sought to ameliorate the consequences of industrialization by enacting minimum wage laws. Conservatives and business groups challenged these ...
admiralty and Maritime Law

admiralty and Maritime Law  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
Article 3, Section 2, of the U.S. Constitution says, “The judicial Power shall extend … to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction.” Admiralty or maritime law pertains to ships ...
affirmative action

affirmative action  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
Any form of positive discrimination taken to assist or promote members of disadvantaged groups, e.g. under Affirmative Action (Equal Employment Opportunity for Women) Act 1986 (Cth). See ...
Agriculture Adjustment Administration.

Agriculture Adjustment Administration.  

In 1933, American agriculture neared collapse as farm bankruptcies and foreclosures multiplied and agricultural prices fell below the cost of production. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt ...
American Bar Association

American Bar Association  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
The American Bar Association (ABA) was founded in 1878 in Saratoga Springs, New York, as a voluntary, national organization of the legal profession. Its initial membership totaled 289 lawyers, and ...
American Civil Liberties Union

American Civil Liberties Union  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(‘ACLU’)The ACLU is a non‐profit, non‐partisan organization dedicated to defending the United States Bill of Rights. The organization boasts over 500,000 members and maintains a fifty‐state network ...
An American Dilemma

An American Dilemma  

(1944).Gunnar Myrdal's An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy ranks among the most important studies of American race relations. The “American Negro Problem,” Myrdal argued, lay ...
Amistad Mutiny

Amistad Mutiny  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
Rebellion of Africans held captive aboard the slave ship La Amistad that occurred in July 1839 off the northern coast of Cuba.Although England and Spain had signed a treaty ...
Andrew Jackson

Andrew Jackson  

(1767–1845)US general and Democratic statesman, 7th President of the USA (1829–37). After waging several campaigns against American Indians, he defeated a British army at New Orleans (1815) and ...
Anti-Defamation League

Anti-Defamation League  

(ADL).Founded in 1913 by the Chicago Lawyer Sigmund Livingston with the sponsorship of the Jewish service organization B'nai B'rith “to stop the defamation of the Jewish people and to ...
antitrust

antitrust  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
This is the American term for competition law. The basic provision of US antitrust is the Sherman Act of 1890. Section 1 states: ‘Every contract, combination in the form of ...
Appointment and Removal Power

Appointment and Removal Power  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
The Constitution of the United States contains two references to the appointment and removal power. Article II, section 2 provides that the president, “by and with the advice and consent ...
Arms, Right to Bear

Arms, Right to Bear  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Three questions are raised by the somewhat mysterious words of the Second Amendment of the U.S. Constitution: “A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State ...
Baker v. Carr

Baker v. Carr  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
(USA, 1962)The first of a series of Supreme Court decisions which undermined the custom of manipulating legislative apportionments at state and federal levels for political or racial purposes. ...
Benjamin Nathan Cardozo

Benjamin Nathan Cardozo  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
(1870–1938)Benjamin Cardozo was an American jurist, the most widely known and influential state court judge of his era. Although he briefly served at the end of his career on ...
birth control

birth control  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Any method that is used to reduce births, including celibacy, delayed marriage, contraception, and sterilization. See also family planning.
Brown v. Board of Education

Brown v. Board of Education  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
(1954)Plessy v Ferguson (1896) upheld the constitutionality of state laws requiring the separation of the races on private railroads. The decision, asserting that segregation was permissible if the ...

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