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Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler  

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Overview Page
(1889–1945)German chancellor and Nazi leader (1933–45). One of the most powerful and evil leaders in the history of the world, he achieved a following in Germany and his native Austria that enabled ...
blackshirt

blackshirt  

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Overview Page
Subject:
History
The colloquial name given to the Squadre d'Azione (Action Squad), the national combat groups, founded in Italy in 1919. Organized along paramilitary lines, they wore black shirts and patrolled cities ...
Brownshirt

Brownshirt  

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Overview Page
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History
Member of an early Nazi paramilitary organization, the Sturmabteilung or SA (‘assault division’). The Brownshirts, recruited from various rough elements of society, were founded by Adolf Hitler in ...
concentration camp

concentration camp  

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Originally a place in which non-combatants were accommodated, as instituted by Lord Kitchener during the Second Boer War (1899–1902). The Boers, mainly women and children, were placed there ...
Der Stahlhelm

Der Stahlhelm  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
Was founded by F. Seldte as an association of officers and soldiers who had seen front-line service in the 1914–18 War. It expressed its right-wing tendencies by supporting the formation ...
Ernst Röhm

Ernst Röhm  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
(Munich, 1887–1934, Munich),a regular army officer, served in the infantry in the 1914–18 War, joining a Freikorps in 1919. Röhm, a man of ruthless brutality and drive, was an ...
Franz von Papen

Franz von Papen  

(1879–1969)German politician. A member of the Catholic Centre Party, he had little popular following, and his appointment as Chancellor (1932) came as a surprise. To gain Nazi support he lifted the ...
Henri Quatre-Romane

Henri Quatre-Romane  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
Two consecutive historical novels by H. Mann, Die Jugend des Königs Henri Quatre (1935) and Die Vollendung des Königs Henri Quatre (1938), which have no authorized collective title but make ...
Hitler Youth

Hitler Youth  

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Overview Page
Subject:
History
A Nazi agency to train young Germans. In 1931 Baldur von Schirach was appointed Youth Leader of the Nazi Party. In 1936 Hitler outlawed all other youth organizations and announced that all young ...
Hitlerputsch

Hitlerputsch  

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Subject:
Literature
(8– 9 Nov. 1923)An abortive coup attempt by Hitler. With the support of Ludendorff, he tried to seize power in the Bavarian capital of Munich as a prelude to a March on Berlin akin to Mussolini's ...
Horst Wessel

Horst Wessel  

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Literature
(Bielefeld, 1907–30, Berlin),a student who joined the NSDAP in 1926, abandoned his studies, and worked for the SA. On 14 January 1930 he was attacked in his department and ...
Kristallnacht

Kristallnacht  

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Literature
The occasion of concerted violence by Nazis throughout Germany and Austria against Jews and their property on the night of 9 – 10 November 1938. The (German) word means literally ‘night of crystal’, ...
MVSN

MVSN  

(Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale, Voluntary Militia for National Security) (Italy)Created in January 1923 to establish a militia answerable to Mussolini alone, it initially consisted ...
NSDAP

NSDAP  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
Abbr. National Socialist German Workers' Party.
Potsdam

Potsdam  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
A city in eastern Germany, the capital of Brandenburg, situated just south-west of Berlin on the Havel River. It is the site of the rococo Sans Souci palace built for Frederick II between 1745 and ...
Reinhard Heydrich

Reinhard Heydrich  

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(1904–42)German police official. He joined the SS in 1931, and in 1934 became deputy head of the Gestapo. From 1941 he administered the Czech territory of Bohemia-Moravia, his inhumanity earning him ...
SS

SS  

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Overview Page
The Nazi special police force. Founded in 1925 by Adolf Hitler as a personal bodyguard, the SS provided security forces (including the Gestapo) and adminstered the concentration camps.abbreviation of ...

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