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structuralism

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absent presence

absent presence  

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Media studies
1. In poststructuralist theory, a concept most closely associated with Derrida, for whom it refers to the mythical status of the supposed hub of any system of ideas (see also deconstruction; ...
act psychology

act psychology  

A doctrine, first propounded by the German psychologist and philosopher Franz Brentano (1838–1917), according to which psychology should study not merely the elements of consciousness as in ...
actionalism

actionalism  

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A term generally associated with the name of French sociologist Alain Touraine, and not to be confused with the ‘action frame of reference’ (see action theory) proposed by Talcott Parsons. Beginning ...
agency

agency  

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1. (sociology) A central thematic opposition with structure representing the scope for human freedom of action—versus the ways in which actions may be determined by social structures. See also ...
Alain Robbe-Grillet

Alain Robbe-Grillet  

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Literature
(1922–2008)French novelist, a leading exponent of the nouveau roman.Born in Brest, Robbe-Grillet worked as statistician in the National Institute of Statistics and as an agronomist at an ...
Aldo van Eyck

Aldo van Eyck  

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 (1918–99) Dutch architect.Until the end of World War II he stayed in Switzerland befriending Giedion and C. Giedion-Welcker, through whom he met avant-garde artists who subsequently influenced his ...
Algirdas Julien Greimas

Algirdas Julien Greimas  

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Linguistics
(1917–92)*Structuralist, semiologist, whose work influenced figures as diverse as Roland Barthes and Fredric Jameson (an avid exponent of Greimas's semiotic squares). He was part of a great ...
always-already given

always-already given  

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Media studies
1. (givenness) Broadly, in cultural theory, a key abstract concept that is taken for granted as an essential starting-point for any theory—often inexplicit but nevertheless the philosophical ...
analogical thinking

analogical thinking  

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Media studies
1. (analogical reasoning, metaphorical thinking) Generating ideas through making analogies between different phenomena.2. According to Lévi-Strauss, the way that people make connections between the ...
Andrea Zanzotto

Andrea Zanzotto  

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Literature
(1921– )is widely recognized as Italy's greatest living poet. He was born near Treviso in the village of Pieve di Soligo, where he still lives and where he worked for ...
anthropology

anthropology  

In philosophical usage, a general theory of human nature, sometimes thought to be the necessary foundation of history and all social sciences. The philosophy of anthropology considers such issues as ...
arbitrariness

arbitrariness  

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Media studies
(not to be confused with randomness)1. In classical Greek philosophy, the issue of whether there was a natural connection between words and what they represent or whether the relation between them ...
axis of combination

axis of combination  

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Media studies
A structuralist term for the ‘horizontal’ axis in the analysis of a textual structure: the plane of the syntagm (Jakobson). Compare selection, axis of.
axis of selection

axis of selection  

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Media studies
A structuralist term for the ‘vertical’ axis in the analysis of a textual structure: the plane of the paradigm (Jakobson). Compare combination, axis of.
behaviourism

behaviourism  

n. an approach to psychology postulating that only observable behaviour need be studied, thus denying any importance to unconscious processes. Behaviourists are concerned with the laws regulating the ...
binarism

binarism  

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Linguistics
1. The ontological division of a domain into two discrete categories or polarities, e.g. mind/body or active/passive. See also binary opposition.2. A loaded term applied by critics to what they ...
binary opposition

binary opposition  

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Literature
(semiotics) A pair of mutually-exclusive signifiers in a paradigm set representing categories which are logically opposed and which together define a complete universe of discourse: for example, ...
Cartesian dualism

Cartesian dualism  

The view that mind and body are two separate substances; the self is as it happens associated with a particular body, but is self-subsistent, and capable of independent existence.
cartography

cartography  

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History
The science and craft of drawing maps and charts; on the latter, see charts and chart-making. In Babylonian and Greek antiquity the world was thought to be a disc surrounded ...
character

character  

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In narrative generally, a character is a person depicted within a story, either through description or direct speech; in drama the term usually refers only to persons portrayed by actors. ...

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