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aeronomy

aeronomy  

The branch of science that studies the physical and chemical properties of the atmosphere. Although sometimes used for studies of the whole atmosphere (compare aerology), it is generally restricted ...
aerosol

aerosol  

A suspension of droplets or particles in a gas; more precisely, of particles with a maximum diameter of 1 μm (fog and mist are thus aerosols). In meteorology, the term is often used to describe the ...
atmosphere

atmosphere  

A gaseous envelope gravitationally bound to a celestial body; in the case of the Earth, with an average composition, by volume, of 79% nitrogen, 20% oxygen, 0.03% carbon dioxide, and traces of rare ...
atmospheric structure

atmospheric structure  

The broadly horizontal layering of the atmosphere, the layers being distinguished by differences in the rate of change of temperature with height, which either favour or discourage the development of ...
Auguste Piccard

Auguste Piccard  

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History
Auguste Piccard (1884–1962), a physicist, balloonist, and hydronaut, was born in Basel, Switzerland, on January 28, 1884. As a physicist, Auguste spent the early portion of his career pioneering ...
Aura

Aura  

A NASA polar-orbiting satellite, part of the Earth Observing System, the third to be launched (after the Terra and Aqua satellites). Its principal mission is to monitor atmospheric chemistry and ...
blue jet

blue jet  

A faint pulse of blue light that arises from the top of a thunderstorm and propagates upwards in the form of a narrow cone to altitudes of 40–50 km (at about 100 km s−1). Blue jets therefore extend ...
chemosphere

chemosphere  

A region of the upper atmosphere between altitudes of 40 and 80 km in which chemical processes driven by sunlight are significant. The chemosphere overlaps the upper stratosphere and the mesosphere. ...
chlorofluorocarbon

chlorofluorocarbon  

(CFC)Any of various organic compounds primarily consisting of carbon, chlorine, and fluorine, such as trichlorofluoromethane, Cl3CF (CFC-11), and dichlorodifluoromethane, Cl2CF2 (CFC-12). Once used ...
clear-air turbulence

clear-air turbulence  

(CAT)The variable pattern of up- and down-draughts, or turbulence, sometimes occurring in the absence of any cloud. It is caused by strong wind shear, especially associated with jet streams in the ...
cloud

cloud  

A visible, dense mass of water droplets and/or ice crystals, suspended in the air, and generally forming when air is forced to rise: at a front, over mountains, or because of convection. Clouds ...
cold conveyor belt

cold conveyor belt  

(CCB)A stream of cold air that flows westwards approximately parallel to, and ahead of, a warm front in a depression, below the encroaching warm air. It generally rises away from the surface to the ...
cosmic dust

cosmic dust  

Particles with a wide range of masses (10-2–10-18 g) and velocities occurring in interplanetary, circumstellar, and interstellar space. They are typically porous with low densities and a ‘cluster of ...
dry intrusion

dry intrusion  

An area associated with the cold front of a depression, where the equatorward branch of the cold conveyor belt causes cold, dry air from the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere to descend ...
dust veil

dust veil  

Fine particles of ash, dust, and sulphur dioxide that are thrown up into the stratosphere by a volcanic eruption, and which can serve as condensation nuclei for the formation of sulphate aerosols.
global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars

global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars  

(GOMOS)An instrument carried by the Envisat satellite to determine the distribution of ozone in the stratosphere. The instrument uses the absorption by ozone of ultraviolet radiation from stars to ...
gravity wave

gravity wave  

A wave in which gravity—generally in the form of buoyancy—plays the predominant role in restoring equilibrium in response to some external disturbance. Such waves are generated in the troposphere ...
halocarbon

halocarbon  

An industrial compound containing carbon and a halogen (usually bromine, chlorine, or fluorine) which is commonly used in fire extinguishers. Halocarbons absorb long-wave electromagnetic radiation ...
homosphere

homosphere  

Atmospheric layer from the Earth's surface to approximately 80 km altitude, where the relative proportions of the various gaseous constituents, excluding water vapour, remain almost constant. See ...
inversion

inversion  

The increase of air temperatures with height. (This is the reverse of the more common situation in which air cools with height.) Inversions occur: when strong, nocturnal, terrestrial radiation cools ...

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