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Stendhal

(1783—1842)

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Alain

Alain  

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Literature
(1868–1951).French philosopher, essayist, critic, teacher, and mentor of the Radical party. The brief chapters of Alain's philosophical essays, the 5,000 lapidary Propos devoted to politics, ...
Antoine-Louis-Claude Destutt de Tracy

Antoine-Louis-Claude Destutt de Tracy  

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Literature
(1754–1836), French philosopher. In a memoir of 20 June 1796 at the Class of Moral and Political Sciences of the new National Institute, Destutt de Tracy invented the term Ideology ...
Armance

Armance  

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Literature
(1827).Stendhal's first novel. The noble Octave de Malivert is in love with his cousin Armance de Zohiloff. The strange and beautifully written story plots the psychological vicissitudes of their ...
Charles de Brosses

Charles de Brosses  

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History
(1709–1777),French magistrate and president of the Burgundian local assembly or parlement. A leading member of the Dijon Academy, Brosses was a typical representative of the Enlightenment. His ...
Charles Pinot Duclos

Charles Pinot Duclos  

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Literature
(1704–72), French historiographer, moralist, and novelist.He was born into a wealthy family that lost its fortune with the collapse of Law's System (1720), and wrote treatises on Breton druids ...
Charles-Augustin Sainte-Beuve

Charles-Augustin Sainte-Beuve  

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Literature
(1804–69)French critic, poet, and novelist. His famous articles in periodicals such as La Revue de Paris and La Revue des deux mondes were collected as Critiques et portraits littéraires ...
Chroniques italiennes

Chroniques italiennes  

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Literature
Collection of stories by Stendhal, written 1829–36, published anonymously in journals and as a collection posthumously in 1855. Based on manuscripts from Italian archives, they range from a short ...
Claire Lechat de Kersaint Duras, duchesse de

Claire Lechat de Kersaint Duras, duchesse de  

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Literature
(1778–1828),maintained an important literary salon and also wrote three remarkable novels about impossible love. Classically simple in style and plot, they treat what were then somewhat scandalous ...
classicism

classicism  

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Literature
1. The classical aesthetic ideals of simplicity, form, order, harmony, balance, clarity, decorum, restraint, serenity, unity, and proportion—together with an emphasis on reason. The term is not ...
Code Napoléon

Code Napoléon  

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History
The first modern codification of French civil law, issued between 1804 and 1810, which sought, under the direction of J. J. Cambacérès, to reorganize the French legal system. Napoleon himself ...
Coppet

Coppet  

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Literature
A château on the shores of Lake Geneva between Geneva and Lausanne bought in 1784 by Jacques Necker, father of Germaine de Staël. It is most usually remembered for the ...
De l'amour

De l'amour  

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Literature
Essay by Stendhal, published anonymously in 1822. Rather chaotically constructed, it purports to be a scientific account of the phases and varieties of love, proposing the famous theory of ...
Faubourg Saint-Germain

Faubourg Saint-Germain  

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Literature
A district of Paris, on the Left Bank, which became a centre of aristocratic society in the 17th and 18th c. and particularly after the Restoration. As such, sometimes without ...
French Literature

French Literature  

The most abundant, innovative, and influential of all western European medieval literatures. Beginning with a trickle of texts in the 9th, 10th, and 11th centuries, it becomes established by the ...
Germanic Influences

Germanic Influences  

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Literature
The history of the French literary response to genres, themes, and styles originating in the germanophone cultures dates back at least to the 1760s, when translations of the prose Idylls ...
Gioacchino Rossini

Gioacchino Rossini  

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Music
(b Pesaro, 29 Feb. 1792; d Passy, 13 Nov. 1868)Italian composer. He wrote no full-length ballet scores though his operas, such as Moïse (chor. Gardel, 1827) and Guillaume Tell (chor. Auber, 1829), ...
Helvétius

Helvétius  

(1715–71)One of the moving spirits behind the Encyclopédie, Helvétius defended a theory of human motivation founded on sensation: we are pushed to action solely by self-interested love of pleasure ...
Hippolyte Taine

Hippolyte Taine  

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Literature
(b Vouziers, Ardennes, 21 Apr. 1828; d Paris, 5 Mar. 1893).French philosopher, historian, and critic. He was a leading exponent of positivism, and in particular the chief figure in ...
Idéologues

Idéologues  

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Literature
A circle of French philosophers and physicians that flourished from 1796 to 1815. Idéologue, originally a pejorative term, first appeared in a royalist newspaper, the Messager des Relations ...
Jean Giono

Jean Giono  

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Literature
(1895–1970).Novelist, born in Manosque (Basses‐Alpes) in 1895, the son of a shoemaker of Italian descent. He enjoyed a happy childhood and attended the local school, which he left at ...

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