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absolutism

absolutism  

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A state-form typical of societies in the process of transition from feudalism to capitalism and in which power is concentrated in the person of a monarch, who has at his or her disposal a centralized ...
Administration

Administration  

This is a three-part article covering State Administration, Provincial Administration, and Temple Administration.Administration is the socioeconomic institution installed to control resources within ...
Admont

Admont  

(monastery) Oldest surviving monastery in Styria, Austria; founded 1074 by Archbishop Gebhard of Salzburg with an endowment left by Countess Hemma of Friesach and Zeltschach; famed for its ...
agrément

agrément  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Law
N.The formal diplomatic notification by a state that the diplomatic agent selected to be sent to it by another state has been accepted, i.e. is persona grata and can consequently become accredited to ...
Alberto Morosini

Alberto Morosini  

(died after 1302)He belonged to one of the most prestigious families of the Venetian patriciate. He was intensely active politically in his city and in Italy; among other things ...
Albi

Albi  

A modest vicus Albi owed its promotion to the administrative reforms of the 4th c., which made it the capital of a civitas and a diocese. Its importance long remained ...
Alexander of Roes

Alexander of Roes  

(13th century) Canon,probably identical to Andreas of Leysberg OFM, in service to Cardinal Jacob Colonna; criticised conditions at the Roman curia. In his major work Memoriale de Prerogativa Romani ...
anarchism

anarchism  

The doctrine associated with Godwin, Bakunin, Proudhon, and others, that human communities can and should flourish without government. Voluntary cooperation should replace the coercive machinery of ...
Antonio Gramsci

Antonio Gramsci  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
(1891–1937)Italian intellectual and founder of the Italian Communist Party.Born in Alès, Sardinia, Gramsci was educated at the University of Turin, where he studied history and philosophy. As a ...
ascribed status

ascribed status  

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In allocating roles and statuses, or imputing allegedly natural behaviours, cultures make varying use of kinship, age, sex, and ethnicity. Such ascribed characteristics cannot be changed by ...
Asiatic mode of production

Asiatic mode of production  

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Of all Karl Marx's conceptions of the modes of production which he considered to have provided the base for the various forms of society known to human history, this was perhaps the least developed, ...
balance of power

balance of power  

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Probably the oldest concept in the study of International Relations going back at least to the work of Thucydides. It is closely associated with both diplomatic parlance and realist theory. Its logic ...
Ban, Banality

Ban, Banality  

The word “ban” (Latin bannum) is of Germanic origin; it was used in the first centuries of the Middle Ages to designate the power of command acknowledged to belong to ...
band societies

band societies  

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Small societies that rely primarily on hunting and gathering for subsistence. Band societies have a prominent place in theories of cultural evolution, where they typically describe the first extended ...
Belarus

Belarus  

A territory formerly also known as Belorussia (White Russia) which had been under Polish and Lithuanian domination for centuries, until it came under Russian control in the late eighteenth century. ...
Bernard Délicieux

Bernard Délicieux  

(died 1319)Born at Montpellier to an eminent family, Bernard Délicieux entered the Order of St Francis around 1284. Reader at Carcassonne, then at Narbonne, he personified the broad intellectual ...
Boleslas I of Bohemia

Boleslas I of Bohemia  

(929–972)Prince of Bohemia from 935 to 972, creator of the unified Czech State, Boleslas (Boleslav) took power in 935 by assassinating the reigning prince Wenceslas I, his elder brother ...
Boleslas II the Bold

Boleslas II the Bold  

(1041/42–1081)Boleslas the Bold or the Generous, in Polish Bolesław Śmiały or Szczodry, Polish prince and from 1076 king of Poland, was the son of the Polish prince Casimir the ...
Bolesław I Chrobry

Bolesław I Chrobry  

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(966/7–1025), Duke of Poland from 992 to 1025 and King of Poland from April to June 1025.Bolesław I Chrobry (“the Brave”) was the son of Mieszko I, a prince ...
Boniface IX

Boniface IX  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(c.1350–1404),Pope from 2 November 1389 until his death on 1 October 1404, was born into an impoverished aristocratic family in Naples; his baptismal name was Pietro Tomacelli. He seems ...

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