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Spanish Civil War

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African-American troops

African-American troops  

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Variously called negro, coloured, and black, the history of African-American soldiers is that of US race relations in general. Even after the abolition of formal discrimination by colour, advancement ...
air power

air power  

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Airborne military forces.
alcázar

alcázar  

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History
(Arabic al‐kasr, ‘the palace’)A type of fortress in Spain, built by the Christians during their 14th‐ and 15th‐century wars against the Moors. It was usually rectangular with great corner towers, and ...
António de Oliveira Salazar

António de Oliveira Salazar  

(b. 8 Apr. 1889, d. 27 July 1970).Prime Minister of Portugal 1932–68Early careerBorn in Vimieiro (Beira Alta), he studied at a Roman Catholic school to prepare for the priesthood, but then decided to ...
atrocities

atrocities  

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ǝˈträsiṯēn. pl. -iesan extremely wicked or cruel act, typically one involving physical violence or injury: forces were reported to have committed atrocities against the civilian population | war ...
B.A. Santamaria

B.A. Santamaria  

Born in Melbourne in 1915 of Italian immigrants, B. A. (‘Bob’) Santamaria (1915–98) won a scholarship to study law at Melbourne University from 1932. He joined the Campion Society to ...
Basque

Basque  

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A member of an ethnic group inhabiting the western Pyrenees on both sides of the French-Spanish border; this region in known as the Basque Country. The Basques possess a distinctive culture and ...
battle for the Mediterranean

battle for the Mediterranean  

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War spread to the Mediterranean basin on 10 June 1940 when Italy declared war on the UK and France (see Maps 2 and 68). Mussolini, who nursed a jealousy of ...
Benito Mussolini

Benito Mussolini  

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(1883–1945) Italian Fascist statesman, Prime Minister (1922–43); known as Il Duce ('the leader'). He founded the Italian Fascist Party in 1919. He annexed Abyssinia in 1936 and entered World War ...
Blueshirts

Blueshirts  

Popular name for the Army Comrades' Association, a political movement formed by ex‐servicemen from the Free State army in February 1932. In reaction to the unexpected victory of de Valera ...
bomber

bomber  

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N.1 an aircraft designed to carry and drop bombs.2 a person who plants, detonates, or throws bombs in a public place, especially as a terrorist.3 short for bomber jacket[...]
bombing of Guernica

bombing of Guernica  

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(1937),infamous incident during the Spanish civil war, the subject of a famous anti-war painting by Pablo Picasso. Twenty miles (32 km) from Bilbao, Guernica was regarded as the centre ...
Carlism

Carlism  

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History
A Spanish conservative political movement originating in support of Don Carlos, brother of Fernando VII (died 1833), who claimed the throne in place of Fernando's daughter Isabella. The movement ...
Carlist wars

Carlist wars  

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(1834–40, 1872–6).Although the Carlist wars originated in a disputed succession to the Spanish throne, they reflected tensions between liberalism and conservatism, the Church and anticlericalism, and ...
civil war

civil war  

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Military conflict centred on territory within a state, involving combatants from that state, over the political right to control that territory. Civil wars usually involve government forces, and the ...
Colonel Henri Rol-Tanguy

Colonel Henri Rol-Tanguy  

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(1905–2002),French communist resister who fought in the International Brigade in the Spanish Civil War and took part in the fighting which preceded the fall of France in 1940. When ...
Condor Legion

Condor Legion  

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A unit of the German airforce sent by Hitler to aid Franco in the Spanish Civil War (1936) on condition that it remained under German command. It aided Franco in transporting troops from Morocco in ...
Count Galeazzo Ciano

Count Galeazzo Ciano  

(b. 18 Mar. 1903, d. 11 Jan. 1944).Italian Fascist leader Born in Livorno, he obtained a degree in law from Rome in 1925, and entered the diplomatic service. Not surprisingly, his career was ...
coup d'état

coup d'état  

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A violent and immediate seizure of state power, usually by armed forces, and with the implication of being undemocratic and unconstitutional. Successful examples occurred in Greece in 1967, Chile in ...
Democratic Transitions

Democratic Transitions  

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The democratic transitions of the 1980s replicated processes that had occurred in more isolated fashion in earlier decades. Indeed, Dankwart Rustow's seminal 1970 article Transitions to Democracy: ...

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