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Alexander Solzhenitsyn

(1918—2008)

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Andrei Sakharov

Andrei Sakharov  

(1921–89)Russian nuclear physicist. Having helped to develop the Soviet hydrogen bomb, he campaigned against nuclear proliferation and called for Soviet–American cooperation. He fought courageously ...
D. M. Thomas

D. M. Thomas  

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Literature
(1935– ),poet, novelist, and translator. His work has been enriched by his familiarity with Russian literature, and his translations include two volumes of the poems of Akhmatova (1976, 1979) and ...
Demise of Soviet Communism

Demise of Soviet Communism  

The contribution of human rights to the demise of Soviet totalitarianism is commonly portrayed as a triumph of Western values and Western power. According to a view shared by many ...
Fedor Dostoevsky

Fedor Dostoevsky  

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Literature
(1821–81)The great Russian novelist is ‘philosophical’ in the sense that his writings explore deep themes of psychology, politics, and religion. They are often cited as ‘existentialist’ in their ...
Gulag

Gulag  

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A system of labour camps maintained in the Soviet Union from 1930 to 1955 in which many people died. Besides ordinary criminals, inmates included dissident intellectuals, political opponents, and ...
Joseph Stalin

Joseph Stalin  

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(born Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (1879–1953) Soviet statesman, General Secretary of the Communist Party of the USSR (1922–53). Born in Georgia, he joined the Bolsheviks under Lenin in 1903 ...
Mikhail Sergeevich Gorbachev

Mikhail Sergeevich Gorbachev  

(b. 2 Mar. 1931).General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union 1985–91Early careerBorn in Privolnoye near Stavropol (northern Caucasus) of a peasant family, the successful pupil and ...
Mikhail Sholokhov

Mikhail Sholokhov  

(1905–1984) Russian novelistAnd Quiet Flows the Don (1928–40) FictionAnd Quiet Flows the Don (1928–40) Fiction
Mstislav Rostropovich

Mstislav Rostropovich  

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Music
(1927– )Russian cellist, pianist, and conductor. An outstanding cellist, he performed all over the world and finally left the Soviet Union in 1975. He was awarded the Lenin Prize in 1964 and ...
Stalinism

Stalinism  

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Stalinism has come to stand for the whole of the repressive Soviet political system under Joseph Stalin (1879–1953) from at least 1928 until his death, although many commentators extend the term to ...

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