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A. Philip Randolph

A. Philip Randolph  

(1889–1979), union head and civil rights leader.A socialist, Asa Philip Randolph saw economic empowerment as the key to African-American advancement, a philosophy he espoused in his Messenger ...
Adult education

Adult education  

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The adult education movement began in the early 1800s to meet the desire of working men and women for some form of learning. Prior to World War II, most working‐class ...
Alfred Russel Wallace

Alfred Russel Wallace  

(1823–1913)British naturalist, who in 1848 went on an expedition to the Amazon, and in 1854 travelled to the Malay Archipelago. There he noticed the differences between the animals of Asia and ...
ALP (principles and practice)

ALP (principles and practice)  

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The Australian Labor Party (ALP) was established ‘to create a better, fairer life for working people’. From this foundation Labor's values, policy, and practice have evolved in response to national ...
American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations

American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations  

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History
(AFL-CIO)The main US labour federation. The name results from the amalgamation in 1955 of two associations, the AFL representing mainly craft unions, and the CIO representing mainly industrial ...
anarchism

anarchism  

The doctrine associated with Godwin, Bakunin, Proudhon, and others, that human communities can and should flourish without government. Voluntary cooperation should replace the coercive machinery of ...
ancien régime

ancien régime  

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Overview Page
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Literature
The political and social system in France (the ‘old rule’) before the Revolution of 1789.
Angelo Fortunato Formiggini

Angelo Fortunato Formiggini  

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Literature
(1878–1938).Publisher. From an old Jewish family in Modena, he was active at the turn of the century in Socialist and positivist circles. He remained committed to publishing as a ...
Anna Wheeler

Anna Wheeler  

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Philosophy
(1785–1848)Closely associated with Mary Wollstonecraft, Anna Wheeler was a radical feminist and an Irish Protestant. A keen advocate of women's rights, she wrote that ‘with the emancipation of women ...
Annie Besant

Annie Besant  

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History
(1847–1933)British social reformer and theosophist. She became a Fabian, a trade-union organizer (including the match girls' strike of 1888), and a propagandist for birth control. She became a ...
Anthony Crosland

Anthony Crosland  

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(1918–77)British Labour politician and socialist theorist. C. A. R. (Tony) Crosland's The Future of Socialism (1956) was a revisionist critique of socialism which had an important impact on the ...
Antonio Beltramelli

Antonio Beltramelli  

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Literature
(1879–1930).Writer and journalist. His first novel, Gli uomini rossi (1904), is a Romeo and Juliet tale of conflict in his native Romagna between Catholics and republicans (rossi); in the ...
Antonio Fogazzaro

Antonio Fogazzaro  

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Literature
(1842–1911)Italian novelist and essayist. His humour and powers of characterization are at their best in Piccolo mondo antico (1895: The Little World of the Past), set north of Lake ...
Antonio Gramsci

Antonio Gramsci  

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Literature
(1891–1937)Italian intellectual and founder of the Italian Communist Party.Born in Alès, Sardinia, Gramsci was educated at the University of Turin, where he studied history and philosophy. As a ...
Apostles

Apostles  

An exclusive intellectual society formed in Cambridge in 1820, for the purpose of friendship and formal discussion. During the 19th‐cent. members included A. Hallam, Tennyson, Milnes, and R. C. ...
applied ethics

applied ethics  

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Philosophy
The subject that applies ethics to actual practical problems, such as those of abortion, euthanasia, the treatment of animals, or other environmental, legal, political, and social problems. See also ...
APRA

APRA  

(Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana, American Popular Revolutionary Alliance)Founded in Mexico in 1924 by the Peruvian exile Haya de la Torre. Its ideals were influenced by the ideals of ...
Arab Socialism

Arab Socialism  

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Religion
In the Arab context, defined as state-sponsored economic development, as manifested in Nasserism and Baathism as state ideologies of Egypt in the 1950s and 1960s and of Iraq and Syria from the 1960s ...
Arnold Toynbee

Arnold Toynbee  

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Philosophy
(1852–83)Arnold Toynbee was born in Savile Row, London on 23 August 1852 and died in Wimbledon on 9 March 1883. Two unexpected events shaped his formative years and later ...
Arusha Declaration

Arusha Declaration  

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History
(1967)A major policy statement by President Nyerere of Tanzania. The text was agreed by the executive of the political party TANU (Tanganyika African National Union) and proposed that TANU implement ...

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