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Abbasid

Abbasid  

A member of a dynasty of caliphs who ruled in Baghdad from 750 to 1258, named after Abbas (566–652), the prophet Muhammad's uncle and founder of the dynasty.
ʿAbd Allāh ibn Maimūn al-Qaddāḥ

ʿAbd Allāh ibn Maimūn al-Qaddāḥ  

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(c.10th cent./ah 3rd cent.).A revered figure among Shīʿa Muslims, who did much to establish and organize Ismāʿīliya; but the details of his own life remain obscure.
al- Hasan

al- Hasan  

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(d. 669)Muhammad's grandson, oldest son of Ali and Fatimah, and second imam in the Shii tradition. Forced by Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan to abdicate the role of caliph in his favor. After his abdication, ...
al- Suhrawardī

al- Suhrawardī  

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Shihāb al-Dīn al-Suhrawardī (1155–1192)was an Iranianphilosopher who was born in the village of Suhraward in northwestern Iran. Educated in Marāgheh and Isfahan, he traveled in Iran, Anatolia, and ...
al- Zaidīy(y)a

al- Zaidīy(y)a  

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(sometimes called ‘Fivers’ because they seceded over the fifth Imām), a sect of Shīʿa Muslims, in contrast to the Ithna ʿAsharīy(y)a (Twelvers) and the Seveners (see also ISMĀʿĪLIY(Y)A). When the ...
al-Hasan b. ʿAli

al-Hasan b. ʿAli  

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(d. 669–70 (ah 49).Second Shīʿa Imam̄, son of ʿAlī and Fāṭima, and claimant to the Caliphate until he renounced the office in favour of Muʿāwiyyah. Muʿawiyyah rewarded him with ...
al-Ḥusain b. ʿAli

al-Ḥusain b. ʿAli  

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(626–80 (ah 4–61).Third Shīʿa Imām, known from his death as Sayyid al-Shuhadāʾ, ‘the Chief of Martyrs’. He was the son of ʿAlī and Fāṭima, and, acc. to numerous ḥadīth ...
Ali

Ali  

(c.599–661)Cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad; fourth caliph (656–61); first Shiite imam; an early Quran scribe. Hasan and Husayn, his sons with Muhammad’s daughter Fatima, are the second and third ...
ʿAlī b. Abī Tālib

ʿAlī b. Abī Tālib  

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(d. 661 (ah 40).Cousin and son-in-law of the Prophet Muḥammad, and the fourth Caliph (Khalīfa) in Islam. ʿAlī was one of the ten to whom paradise was promised by ...
art and architecture: Ayyubid

art and architecture: Ayyubid  

The Ayyubid dynasty ruled in Egypt between 1171–1250, in Syria and southeast Anatolia between 1180–1260, and in the Yemen between 1174–1229. The dynasty was established in 1169 by the Kurdish ...
art and architecture: Seljuk

art and architecture: Seljuk  

Art and architecture produced during the Seljuk period is important in that it defined aesthetic and architectural expression in the central and eastern Islamic lands for the next several centuries. ...
Ashura

Ashura  

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Tenth day of the Muslim month of Muharram. Commemoration of the martyrdom in 680 of Husayn, Muhammad's grandson and the third imam of Shii Islam. Shii communities annually reenact the tragedy in a ...
Bektāshīyah

Bektāshīyah  

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Turkish Derwish order, originating in about the 12th cent. CE, of a particularly eclectic kind. The traditional founder was Hajji Bektash Vali, but very little is known of him. They ...
Berber

Berber  

An indigenous person of northern and north-western Africa. Traditionally, the Berbers speak Berber languages, although most literate Berbers also speak Arabic. The Berbers are Sunni Muslims, and ...
Būyids

Būyids  

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Islamic dynasty that ruled in Iran and Iraq from 932 to 1062. Civil wars, the erosion of caliphal power by a Turkish military caste, corrupt administration and racial tensions during ...
Fatima

Fatima  

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Daughter of Muhammad and Khadijah, wife of the fourth caliph, Ali ibn Abi Talib, and mother of Hasan and Husayn. Known as “Mother of the Imams,” in accordance with Shii belief that only descendants ...
Fatimid

Fatimid  

A descendant or Arabian dynasty claiming descent from Fatima, the daughter of the Prophet Muhammad. The Fatimids ruled in parts of North Africa from 908 to 1171, and during some of that period in ...
Hadith

Hadith  

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A collection of traditions containing sayings of the prophet Muhammad which, with accounts of his daily practice (the Sunna), constitute the major source of guidance for Muslims apart from the Koran. ...
Ḥamdānids

Ḥamdānids  

Arab nomadic Shii clan that undermined Abbasid rule from Mesopotamia (905–991). Its influence eventually extended from Mosul to Baghdad, westward to northern Syria, and northward into Armenia. The ...
Ḥurūfī

Ḥurūfī  

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A Shiʿa movement founded by Fazl Allāh in the 14th cent. (8th cent. ah), later adopted by some Bektāshīya. Their belief (summarized in Maḥram-nāme, ah 828) is that the universe ...

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