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Schmalkaldic War

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Augustus I

Augustus I  

(1526–86),Elector of Saxony, was born in Freiberg on 31 July 1526, the younger son of Heinrich, duke of Saxony, a member of the Albertine branch of the Wettin family. ...
Bernardino Ochino

Bernardino Ochino  

(1487–1564),Italian Protestant reformer, born in Siena, where he entered the austere Order of Observantine Friars, a reformed Franciscan religious order. He became general of his Order, but in 1534 ...
Charles V

Charles V  

(1500–58)Holy Roman Emperor (1519–56) and (as Charles I) King of Spain (1516–56). The son of Philip I (the Handsome) and Joanna of Spain, and grandson of Emperor Maximilian I, Charles came to the ...
Frankfurt

Frankfurt  

Economically and strategically central, the town grew out of a royal palace (first mentioned in 794). Decisive for its growth were the fairs (first mentioned c.1150, privileged between 1140 and ...
Friedrich II

Friedrich II  

(1482–1556),Elector palatine of the Rhine, shares the epithet ‘the Wise’ with Friedrich III, elector of Saxony, with whom he is sometimes confused. He was born on 9 December 1482 ...
Granvelle, Antoine Perrenot De

Granvelle, Antoine Perrenot De  

(1517–86),Cardinal and minister of Spain in the Netherlands, the son of Nicholas Perrenot de Granvelle, a notary who later became the imperial chancellor of Charles V. Antoine studied law ...
Herzog von Württemberg Ulrich

Herzog von Württemberg Ulrich  

(Reichenweier, Alsace, 1487–1550, Tübingen),came to the ducal throne in 1503. His extravagance led to the imposition of heavy taxes, which provoked a revolt known as ‘der Arme Konrad’ (see ...
Joachim II

Joachim II  

Surnamed Hector (1505–71), Elector of Brandenburg, born on 12 January 1505, the elder son of Joachim I, elector of Brandenburg. He received his education at the imperial court. In 1524 ...
Johannes Sleidanus

Johannes Sleidanus  

(1506–56),German historian, born Johann Philippson at Schleiden (from which he derived his Latin name) in the Eifel. He studied classical languages at Liège and Cologne and jurisprudence at Paris ...
Karl V, Kaiser

Karl V, Kaiser  

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(Ghent, 1500–58, San Geronimo de Yuste, Spain),grandson of the Emperor Maximilian I, and son of Philip of Burgundy and a Spanish mother (Joana), acceded to the Burgundian estates (Netherlands ...
Magdeburg

Magdeburg  

(archbishopric) Established by Otto I as a sign of Ottonian expansion into eastern territories, Magdeburg became an archbishopric in 968 as part of Otto’s plan to strengthen ties to the papacy.[...]
Maximilian II

Maximilian II  

(1527–76),Holy Roman Emperor, was born in Vienna on 31 July 1527, the eldest son of the Habsburg Emperor Ferdinand I and his wife Anna, daughter of Ladislas, king of ...
Moritz of Saxony

Moritz of Saxony  

(1521–1553), duke of Albertine Saxony, prince elector of Saxony after 1547.The first prince elector from the Albertine line of the house of the Wettins that emerged from the Leipzig ...
Mühlberg

Mühlberg  

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(24 April 1547),The final battle in the Schmalkaldic War, in which the Spanish army of the Emperor Charles V and the army of Maurice of Saxony crossed the Elbe ...
Nikolaus von Amsdorf

Nikolaus von Amsdorf  

(1483–1565), Lutheran theologian. He joined M. Luther in 1517 and accompanied him to the Disputation of Leipzig (1519) and the Diet of Worms (1521). In 1524 he went to Magdeburg to lead the ...
Philip

Philip  

(1504–67), Landgraf of Hesse. The most able of the German princes who supported M. Luther, he introduced the Reformation in Hesse, and in 1527 he founded the University of Marburg as a school for ...
Saxony

Saxony  

Region of Germany, the dimensions of which have often shifted since the term first described the domain of the Saxon tribes who, by the early 8th century, inhabited the land ...
Schmalkaldic League

Schmalkaldic League  

A Protestant alliance formed in Schmalkalden (Thuringia) on 27 February 1531 to defend Protestant states and towns against the forces of the Emperor Charles V; the leaders of the League ...
Wilhelm IV

Wilhelm IV  

(1493–1550),Second duke of Bavaria, the son of Albrecht IV of Wittelsbach and Kunigunde, daughter of the Emperor Friedrich III. In March 1508, on the death of Albrecht IV, Wilhelm ...

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