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Schmalkaldic League

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Albert of Brandenburg

Albert of Brandenburg  

(1490–1545), elector of the Holy Roman Empire, archbishop of Mainz and Magdeburg, and administrator of Halberstadt.He was the younger son (b. 28 June 1490) of John Cicero, elector of ...
Albrecht Alcibiades

Albrecht Alcibiades  

(1522–57),Hohenzollern margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach, was born in Ansbach on 28 March 1522, the son of Casimir, prince of Bayreuth, a member of the Franconian branch of the Hohenzollern dynasty. ...
Augsburg

Augsburg  

(city, bishopric) Attested since the 8th century on the site of Roman Augusta Vindelicorum. A document of 1156 confirms the bishop’s lordship, conditioned by the citizens’ community. An imperial city ...
Bavaria

Bavaria  

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Overview Page
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History
A south German duchy ruled by the Wittelsbach family (see Appendix 1) from 1180 to 1918. From 1253 to 1504 the duchy was repeatedly partitioned, initially into Upper Bavaria and ...
Catholic League of Nuremberg

Catholic League of Nuremberg  

A league of German Catholic princes sponsored by Ferdinand I (brother of the Emperor Charles V) and constituted in 1538 as the Catholic response to the Schmalkaldic League. The impending ...
Charles V

Charles V  

(1500–58)Holy Roman Emperor (1519–56) and (as Charles I) King of Spain (1516–56). The son of Philip I (the Handsome) and Joanna of Spain, and grandson of Emperor Maximilian I, Charles came to the ...
Conference of Hagenau

Conference of Hagenau  

From 25 June to 28 July 1540 the Emperor Charles V presided over a conference in the twelfth-century imperial palace in Hagenau (now the French town of Haguenau, 15 kilometres ...
Ferdinand I

Ferdinand I  

(1503–1564), King of Hungary and Bohemia, later Holy Roman Emperor.Ferdinand laid both the administrative and territorial foundations of the Habsburg empire in central and east central Europe. Born ...
Frankfurt

Frankfurt  

Economically and strategically central, the town grew out of a royal palace (first mentioned in 794). Decisive for its growth were the fairs (first mentioned c.1150, privileged between 1140 and ...
Friedrich II

Friedrich II  

(1482–1556),Elector palatine of the Rhine, shares the epithet ‘the Wise’ with Friedrich III, elector of Saxony, with whom he is sometimes confused. He was born on 9 December 1482 ...
Friedrich Myconius

Friedrich Myconius  

(1490–1546), Lutheran reformer of Thuringia. A member of the Franciscan Order, he sympathized with M. Luther's attack on indulgences and was confined in various houses of his Order. In 1524 he fled ...
Hamburg

Hamburg  

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Overview Page
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Music
N. German city and port with long mus. tradition. Famous figures in its church mus. history who held office of Musikdirektor der Hauptkirchen incl. Sartorius (1604–37), Selle (1638–63), Telemann ...
Hermann of Wied

Hermann of Wied  

(1477–1552), reformer. He became Abp.-Elector of Cologne in 1515. In his earlier years he was hostile to the Protestant movement, but c.1539 he set out to create a parallel movement within the ...
Herzog von Württemberg Ulrich

Herzog von Württemberg Ulrich  

(Reichenweier, Alsace, 1487–1550, Tübingen),came to the ducal throne in 1503. His extravagance led to the imposition of heavy taxes, which provoked a revolt known as ‘der Arme Konrad’ (see ...
Hesse

Hesse  

Named for the 8th-century inhabitants (‘Hessi’) of the Kassel region, it formed, with Marburg, the western portion of the Thuringian landgravate (11th century). Sophie of Brabant (d. 1275) used the ...
Jakob Sturm

Jakob Sturm  

(1489–1553),Reformer and statesman, born in Strassburg on 10 August 1489 and educated at the universities of Heidelberg and Freiburg. He subsequently embraced the reformed faith and in 1517 entered ...
Joachim II

Joachim II  

Surnamed Hector (1505–71), Elector of Brandenburg, born on 12 January 1505, the elder son of Joachim I, elector of Brandenburg. He received his education at the imperial court. In 1524 ...
Johann Friedrich I, the Magnanimous

Johann Friedrich I, the Magnanimous  

(1503–54),Elector of Saxony, born at Torgau on 30 June 1503, the son of the Elector Johann, who was the head of the Ernestine branch of the Wettin family. Johann ...
Johannes Sleidanus

Johannes Sleidanus  

(1506–56),German historian, born Johann Philippson at Schleiden (from which he derived his Latin name) in the Eifel. He studied classical languages at Liège and Cologne and jurisprudence at Paris ...
John Immanuel Tremellius

John Immanuel Tremellius  

(1510–80), Hebrew scholar. The son of a Jew, he was converted to Catholicism in 1540; in 1541 Peter Martyr persuaded him to become a Protestant. He was King's Reader of Hebrew at Cambridge from 1549 ...

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