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absolution

absolution  

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Overview Page
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Religion
The formal act of a bishop or priest pronouncing the forgiveness of sins by Christ to penitent sinners. A formula of absolution is included in many liturgical acts of worship, but according to ...
actuality and potentiality

actuality and potentiality  

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Overview Page
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Philosophy
The contrast between what is actually, or really, the case, and what could have been or could come to be the case. One of the major problems of scholastic thought is understanding what reason God ...
Adelard of Bath

Adelard of Bath  

(c.1070–c.1145)English Benedictine remembered as a conduit for the introduction of Arabic astronomy and philosophy to the West.
Albert the Great

Albert the Great  

(1200–80),Dominican friar and bishop. A Swabian by birth, Albert joined the Dominicans at Padua in 1223 against the wishes of his noble family. After teaching at Hildesheim, Ratisbon, and Cologne, ...
alchemy

alchemy  

The medieval forerunner of chemistry, concerned with the transmutation of matter, in particular with attempts to convert base metals into gold or find a universal elixir.The term comes (in late ...
Alcuin

Alcuin  

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History
(c. 735–804)English scholar and theologian. In 782 was employed by Emperor Charlemagne as head of his palace school at Aachen, where his pupils included many of the outstanding figures in the ...
Alexander of Hales

Alexander of Hales  

(c.1185–1245)Influential Franciscan theologian and writer on logic, known as ‘Doctor Irrefragabilis’ (irrefutable doctor). Alexander taught the independence of theology, based on revelation, and ...
alms

alms  

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Religion
Money or food given to poor people. Recorded from Old English (in the form ælmysse, ælmesse), the word comes via Christian Latin from Greek eleēmosunē ‘compassion’, and ultimately from eleos ‘mercy’.
Andrew Melville

Andrew Melville  

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History
(1545–1622).Scottish Reformer and theologian, concerned especially with educational reform. Entrusted in 1575 with the responsibility of compiling the Second Book of Discipline, he vigorously opposed ...
Andrew Michael Ramsay

Andrew Michael Ramsay  

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Philosophy
(1686–1743)Andrew Ramsay was born at Ayr in Scotland on 9 July 1686 and died at St Germaine-en-Laye, France on 6 May 1743. French by adoption, the Duke of Orléans ...
Aristotelianism

Aristotelianism  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
Aristotle's influence originally survived through his own school, the Lyceum. His works were collected and edited by Andronicus of Rhodes, and commentaries continued until Justinian closed the pagan ...
Aristotle

Aristotle  

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(384–322bce). Greek philosopherimportant in the early history of Western linguistics both for his general contributions to logic, rhetoric, and poetics and for a specific classification of speech ...
Arnold Geulincx

Arnold Geulincx  

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Religion
(1624–69)Born in Antwerp, Geulincx studied and taught at Louvain, until in 1658 he was deprived of his chair. Leaving Louvain he settled at Leiden, where he became a Calvinist. He is principally ...
artes praedicandi

artes praedicandi  

These were treatises written for preachers to explain to them the different procedures for composing a sermon. In France, one of the first treatises was written by Alan of Lille ...
Averroës

Averroës  

(c. 1126–98),Spanish-born Islamic philosopher, judge, and physician. His extensive body of work includes writings on jurisprudence, science, philosophy, and religion. His highly influential ...
Avicenna

Avicenna  

(980–1037),Persian-born Islamic philosopher and physician; Arabic name ibn-Sina. His philosophical system, drawing on Aristotle but in many ways closer to Neoplatonism, was the major influence on the ...
Baconianism

Baconianism  

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Subject:
Philosophy
Baconianism is a philosophical framework that derives from the thought of the seventeenth-century scholar Francis Bacon. Baconianism is not characterized by adherence to specific scientific theories, ...
Beatific Vision

Beatific Vision  

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Subject:
Religion
The first sight of the glories of heaven; the direct experience of God by those in heaven.
Beatitude, Happiness

Beatitude, Happiness  

At the beginning of the Middle Ages, Boethius defined happiness as “the perfect state resulting from the coming together of all goods” (Consolation of philosophy, III, pr. 2). In fact ...
Benjamin Jowett

Benjamin Jowett  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
(1817–93),one of the legendary figures of late Victorian Oxford, was professor of Greek from 1855 and master of Balliol College from 1870. A Broad Churchman in the tradition of T. Arnold, he outraged ...

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