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Adam of Bremen

Adam of Bremen  

Summoned to Bremen in 1066/7 by Archbishop Adalbert soon after he and his see had suffered setbacks, Adam was made scholasticus and given the task of writing the Gesta Hammaburgensis ...
Anders Chydenius

Anders Chydenius  

(1729–1803), Scandinavian statesman and writer on political economy. Anders Chydenius was an important political figure and political writer, especially in the 1760s. He was a priest at that time and ...
Anskar

Anskar  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(801–65),archbishop of Bremen. Born near Amiens of a noble family, Anskar was educated at Corbie (Picardy), where he became a monk. Later he moved to Corvey (Westphalia), where he began apostolic ...
archaeology: Germany and Austria

archaeology: Germany and Austria  

1. Introduction2. The early MA and the Carolingian period3. The high MA1. Introduction2. The early MA and the Carolingian period3. The high MA1. IntroductionIn Germany and ...
archaeology: Scandinavia (including Finland and Estonia) and Iceland

archaeology: Scandinavia (including Finland and Estonia) and Iceland   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,980 words

The broad geographical expanse from *Iceland to Estonia and from Denmark to the North Cape encompasses vastly different topographies, climates,

art and architecture: Cistercian

art and architecture: Cistercian  

The Cistercian order was founded in 1098 at Cîteaux, in Burgundy, by a group of monks who had left a reformed but traditional Benedictine monastery in hope of living a ...
art and architecture: Scandinavian

art and architecture: Scandinavian  

Medieval art in Scandinavia, c.775–1550, represents eight centuries of highly diverse crafts, techniques, functions, and aesthetics, and the development can be traced in a constantly changing pattern ...
art, Highland

art, Highland  

A widely recognized concept of Highland art is witness to a distinctive visual and aesthetic tradition; powerful, persistent, and conservative in character, it gives the impression of belonging in a ...
Baldwin family

Baldwin family  

Counts of Flanders. Baldwin I (r. c.863– 79) held the pagus Flandrensis (the Bruges district) and domains near Ghent from Charles II ‘the Bald’, after Baldwin’s elopement with Charles’s daughter ...
Baltic Sea

Baltic Sea  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
This entry contains two subentries: An Overview, Regional NaviesThe Baltic Sea, including the Gulfs of Bothnia, Finland, and Riga but excluding The Sound and the Danish straits, has an ...
Baltics

Baltics  

Reference type:
Overview Page
[This entry contains six subentries, on Baltic sources from 500–1300 and 1300–1500, an overview of Baltic military history from 500–1300 and 1300–1500, and on Baltic historiography from 500–1300 and ...
barbarian

barbarian  

Reference type:
Overview Page
While we associate Classical culture primarily with emphasis on citizenship (membership of a polis), Classical Greek literature also assigns considerable importance to defining a common Greek ...
Battle of Brunkeberg

Battle of Brunkeberg  

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Overview Page
In 1450, the Danish king Christian I (d. 1481) was also named king of Norway, uniting both countries under his rule. Seven years later he assumed the throne of Sweden ...
Battle of Nesjar

Battle of Nesjar  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Olaf Haraldsson’s victory at Nesjar, off the coast of Norway, was decisive in his campaign to become king of Norway and make his country independent of Denmark and Sweden. The ...
bautastein

bautastein  

Large stone raised on end and secured in the ground. Without inscription, such stones served as memorials, fertility symbols, or grave markers, and were common in Norway, Sweden, and parts ...
Bergen

Bergen  

Norwegian town. Bergen probably became a bishop’s seat and a legally confirmed urban community in the reign of King Olaf III Haraldsson (1067–93). The town grew into the all-important export ...
Birka

Birka  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
[Si]Viking trading centre and entrepôt constructed on the island of Björkö west of Stockholm in the early 9th century ad. Excavations show that the settlement and harbour were bounded by a rampart on ...
Birsay

Birsay  

The Brough of Birsay, a tidal island, is one of the best‐known archaeological sites in Orkney, projecting out into the Atlantic at the north‐west corner of Birsay Bay. Its name ...
Black Death

Black Death  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
(1347–50)The most virulent epidemic of bubonic and pneumonic plague ever recorded. It reached Europe from the Tartar armies, fresh from campaigning in the Crimea, who besieged the port of Caffa ...
bracteate

bracteate  

Term designating two distinct series of objects: Scandinavian gold pendants of the early MA, and the silver coins circulating in parts of central and northern Europe in the 12th and ...

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