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Anwar Sadat

(1918—1981) Egyptian statesman, President 1970–81

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Arab-Israeli Conflict

Arab-Israeli Conflict  

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Overview Page
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Religion
Ongoing conflict between Arabs and Israel over Palestinian territory. The origins of the conflict lie in the Balfour Declaration (1917), which promised “a national home for the Jewish people,” and in ...
Boutros Boutros-Ghali

Boutros Boutros-Ghali  

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Overview Page
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Law
(1922– )Egyptian diplomat and politician, Secretary-General of the United Nations 1992–96. He served as Egyptian minister of state for foreign affairs from 1971 to 1991.
Camp David Accords

Camp David Accords  

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Overview Page
(1978)A Middle East peace agreement. It was named after the official country house of the US President in Maryland, where President Carter met President Sadat of Egypt and Prime Minister Begin of ...
Egypt

Egypt  

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Overview Page
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History
Egypt, the largest Arab country, has made little progress towards democracyEgypt's vast territory consists of two main desert areas separated by the fertile Nile Valley. The western desert occupies ...
Gamal Abdel Nasser

Gamal Abdel Nasser  

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History
(1918–70)Egyptian colonel and statesman, Prime Minister (1954–56) and President (1956–70). He was the leader of a successful military coup to depose King Farouk in 1952, after which a republic was ...
Hafez al- Assad

Hafez al- Assad  

(b. 6 Oct. 1930, d. 16 Oct. 2000).President of Syria 1971–2000Early careerBorn in Qardaha into the Alawi sect, he became an officer in the airforce. He joined the Ba'ath Party in the 1950s, and ...
Hosni Mubarak

Hosni Mubarak  

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(1928– )Egyptian statesman, President since 1981. Appointed head of the Egyptian air force in 1972, Mubarak became Vice-President in 1975 and succeeded President Sadat following the latter's ...
Infitah

Infitah  

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Overview Page
The infitah that blossomed in Egypt in the early 1970s meant the “opening up” of Egyptian society to the nonsocialist world. This entailed an opening to foreign capital and a ...
Israel

Israel  

After half a century of war and hostility, peace with the Palestinians seems as remote as everIsrael can be considered to have four main geographical regions. To the north is a hilly region that ...
jihad

jihad  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
A holy war undertaken by Muslims against unbelievers. The name comes from Arabic jihād, literally ‘effort’, expressing, in Muslim thought, struggle on behalf of God and Islam.
Jimmy Carter

Jimmy Carter  

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1924– )US Democratic statesman and thirty-ninth president of the USA (1977–81).Carter was born in Plains, Georgia, the son of a peanut farmer and warehouser. Having graduated from the US Naval ...
Menachem Begin

Menachem Begin  

(b. 16 Aug. 1913, d. 9 Mar. 1992).Prime Minister of Israel 1977–83 Born in Brest‐Litovsk in White Russia (later Poland), he graduated in law from the University of Warsaw. He was soon active in the ...
Military Rule

Military Rule  

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Overview Page
Armed forces have been influential actors in the countries of Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Middle East since World War II. Some Third World countries under military rule are ...
Mohammed Neguib

Mohammed Neguib  

(b. 20 Feb. 1901, d. 29 Aug. 1984).President of Egypt 1952–4 Born in Khartoum, he joined the Egyptian army in 1921, gradually rising to the rank of brigade commander during the war against the newly ...
Nasserism

Nasserism  

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Religion
Political movement calling for the liberation of Arabs and all Afro-Asian states colonized or dominated by Western powers, with Egypt playing a key leadership role. Influence grew as Gamal Abdel ...
Palestine Liberation Organization

Palestine Liberation Organization  

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(PLO)A political and military body formed in 1964 to unite various Palestinian Arab groups in opposition to the Israeli presence in the former territory of Palestine. From 1967 the organization was ...
United Arab Republic

United Arab Republic  

A political union that existed between Egypt and Syria from 1958 until 1961. It was seen as the first step towards the creation of a pan-Arab union in the Middle East.

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