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Russian Revolution

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Alexander Feodorovich Kerensky

Alexander Feodorovich Kerensky  

(1881–1970)Russian revolutionary. He was a representative of the moderate Labour Party in the Fourth Duma (1912) and joined the Socialist Revolutionary Party during the Russian Revolution. After the ...
Bolshevism

Bolshevism  

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Political theory and practice of the Bolshevik Party which, under Lenin, came to power during the Russian Revolution of October 1917. The Bolshevik (meaning ‘majority’) radical communist faction ...
Cdr Mikhail Vasilevich Frunze

Cdr Mikhail Vasilevich Frunze  

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(1885–1925),Soviet politician, military leader, and theorist; founder and ideologue of the Red Army, Soviet military doctrine, and Soviet preparations for total war. A student at St Petersburg ...
Cheka

Cheka  

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History
Soviet secret police. An acronym for the All-Russian Extraordinary Commission for the Suppression of Counter-revolution and Sabotage, it was instituted by Lenin (1917) and run by Dzerzhinski, a Pole. ...
Chinese political thought

Chinese political thought  

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Chinese classical thought was directed primarily to politics in the wider sense, yet China produced relatively little systematic political philosophy. The Chinese cities of the Warring States period ...
Chinese Revolution

Chinese Revolution  

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History
The overthrow of the Manchu Qing dynasty and the establishment of a Chinese republic. After half a century of anti-Manchu risings, the imperial government began a reform movement that gave limited ...
civil war

civil war  

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Military conflict centred on territory within a state, involving combatants from that state, over the political right to control that territory. Civil wars usually involve government forces, and the ...
collectivization

collectivization  

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History
The creation of collective or communal farms. The policy was ruthlessly enforced in the Soviet Union by Stalin between 1929 and 1933 in an effort to overcome an acute grain shortage in the towns. The ...
communism

communism  

A theory of classless society with common ownership of property and wealth and centrally planned production and distribution based on the principle ‘from everyone according to their skills, to ...
Communist Party States

Communist Party States  

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When World War I broke out in 1914 there were no communist party states. For many years after the Russian Revolution of 1917 there were only three, the Soviet Union ...
Cossacks

Cossacks  

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A people in south Russia. They were descended from refugees from religious persecution in Poland and Muscovy, and from peasants fleeing the taxes and obligations of the feudal system. Settling in ...
Duma

Duma  

An elective legislative assembly introduced in Russia by Nicholas II in 1906 in response to popular unrest. Boycotted by the socialist parties, its efforts to introduce taxation and agrarian reforms ...
eastern front

eastern front  

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(1914–18).The German elite accepted war in 1914, in part because it feared the long-term build-up of Russian military strength. The pretext for escalating from a local war to a ...
Emma Goldman

Emma Goldman  

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Literature
(1869–1940)Anarchist activist, born in Lithuania. She campaigned in the USA for workers' rights, birth control, and other causes. She was deported to Russia in 1919 and in 1931 published her ...
Feliks Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky

Feliks Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky  

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(b. 11 Sept. 1877, d. 20 July 1926).Soviet politician Born in Dzerzhinovo, near Minsk, as the son of a Polish nobleman, he became a revolutionary for the Lithuanian‐Polish Marxist parties in 1896. He ...
Georgy Plekhanov

Georgy Plekhanov  

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Philosophy
(1856–1918)The founding father of Russian Marxism. Plekhanov was exiled from Russia for revolutionary activity in 1880. Shortly thereafter he founded the Emancipation of Labour, a Marxist association ...
Grigori Zinoviev

Grigori Zinoviev  

(b. 11 Sept. 1883, d. 25 Aug. 1936).Soviet politician Born Radomyslsky Apfelbaum in Elizavetgrad, he joined the Russian Social Democratic Party in 1901 and supported the Bolshevik faction in 1903, ...
Hannah Arendt

Hannah Arendt  

(1906–1975)German-born US political philosopher, well known for her work on the nature of totalitarianism, violence, revolution, and other features of modern political life.Born in Hanover, she began ...
industrial Revolution

industrial Revolution  

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Subject:
History
The rapid development of industry that occurred in Britain in the late 18th and 19th centuries, brought about by the introduction of machinery.
intelligentsia

intelligentsia  

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Intellectuals or highly educated people as a group, especially when regarded as possessing culture and political influence. The word comes (in the early 20th century) from Russian intelligentsiya, ...

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