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Bertrand Russell

(1872—1970) philosopher, journalist, and political campaigner

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A. J. Ayer

A. J. Ayer  

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Overview Page
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Philosophy
(1910–1989)British philosopher, responsible for introducing the principles of logical positivism of the Vienna Circle to British philosophers. He was knighted in 1970.Born in London, Ayer was ...
Absolute Idealism

Absolute Idealism  

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Overview Page
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Philosophy
19th-century version of idealism in which the world is equated with objective or absolute thought, rather than with the personal flux of experience, as in subjective idealism. The doctrine is the ...
acquaintance and description

acquaintance and description  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
Distinction in our ways of knowing things, highlighted by Russell and forming a central element in his philosophy after the discovery of the theory of definite descriptions. A thing is known by ...
Adullamites

Adullamites  

Was the name derisively given to Robert Lowe and nearly 40 Liberal MPs who opposed Lord Russell's programme of parliamentary reform in 1866. They were dubbed by John Bright on 13 March in allusion to ...
Alan Turing

Alan Turing  

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(1912–1954)British mathematician, who introduced the concept of the Turing machine.Born in London, he was educated at King's College, Cambridge, where he was elected to a fellowship in 1936. In the ...
Aldous Huxley

Aldous Huxley  

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Overview Page
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Literature
(1894–1963),grandson of T. H. Huxley and brother of Julian Huxley. By 1919, when he began to write for Murry in the Athenaeum, he had already published three volumes of verse; a volume of stories, ...
Alfred Cyril Ewing

Alfred Cyril Ewing  

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Overview Page
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Philosophy
(1899–1973)A. C. Ewing was born in Leicester on 11 May 1899 and died in Manchester on 14 May 1973. He was educated at Wyggeston Grammar School in Leicester and ...
Alfred Eisenstaedt

Alfred Eisenstaedt  

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(1898–1995)German-born US photographer, who did much to develop the art of photojournalism, especially during his long association with Life magazine.Eisenstaedt was born in Dirschau, West Prussia ...
Alfred North Whitehead

Alfred North Whitehead  

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Overview Page
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Philosophy
(1861–1947)British mathematician, logician, and metaphysician.The son of a clergyman, Whitehead was born in Ramsgate, Kent, and educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he remained as student, ...
Alfred Sidgwick

Alfred Sidgwick  

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Subject:
Philosophy
(1850–1943)Alfred Sidgwick was born at Skipton in Yorkshire and died on 22 December 1943. He was the eldest son of Robert Hodson Sidgwick, a cotton manufacturer, and his wife ...
analysis

analysis  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
The process of breaking a concept down into more simple parts, so that its logical structure is displayed. At its most elementary this may be revealed by a dictionary definition (‘to be a vixen is to ...
analytic philosophy

analytic philosophy  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
The philosophy that takes the process of analysis to be central to philosophical method and progress. The common idea of analytical philosophers was that the surface form of a language may conceal ...
Anthony Clifford Grayling

Anthony Clifford Grayling  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
(1949–)Anthony Grayling was born in Luanshya, Zambia on 3 April 1949. He grew up in the English expatriate community of Central and East Africa, which afforded him eclectic philosophical ...
Anthony John Patrick Kenny

Anthony John Patrick Kenny  

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Overview Page
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Philosophy
(1931– ).British philosopher who has written on topics in the philosophy of mind, medieval philosophy, ancient philosophy, the philosophy of Wittgenstein, the philosophy of Descartes, moral ...
Anthony Richards Manser

Anthony Richards Manser  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
(1924–95)Anthony Richards Manser was born in Wandsworth on 24 June 1924 and died in Southampton. After World War II he went up to Oxford University, where he gained his ...
Apostles

Apostles  

An exclusive intellectual society formed in Cambridge in 1820, for the purpose of friendship and formal discussion. During the 19th‐cent. members included A. Hallam, Tennyson, Milnes, and R. C. ...
Appeal of Nobel Peace Prize Laureates

Appeal of Nobel Peace Prize Laureates  

As the number of Nobel Peace Prize winners and Nobel laureates increased in the twentieth century, individual and groups of laureates began the practice of issuing statements or appeals linked ...
Archibald Allan Bowman

Archibald Allan Bowman  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
(1883–1936)Archibald Allan Bowman was born in the Congregational Union manse in Beith, Ayrshire, on 4 April 1883 and died at his home in the Professors' Square of Glasgow University ...
arithmetic

arithmetic  

The study of the natural numbers, which are 0, 1, 2, 3…and their successors. Arithmetic is characterized by Peano's postulates. Philosophical questions include the nature of our knowledge of those ...
Arthur David Ritchie

Arthur David Ritchie  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
(1891–1967)Arthur David Ritchie was born in Oxford on 22 June 1891 and died in Edinburgh on 12 March 1967. Brought up in St Andrews following his Edinburgh-born Hegelian father's ...

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