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Abraham's Bosom

Abraham's Bosom  

(Heb., be-heiko shel Avraham).An expression indicating the location of righteous souls. It led to the famous ‘malapropism’ of the Hostess in Shakespeare's Henry V: ‘Nay, sure he's [Falstaff] not ...
adultery

adultery  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
The way in which religions have played so vital a role in the protection of what would now be recognized as gene-replication and the nurture of children has contributed to ...
African customary law

African customary law  

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Overview Page
This useful, albeit disputed, term denotes a body of largely unwritten laws that have been derived from social practices regarded as obligatory by the communities concerned. The account below is ...
Alberico Gentili

Alberico Gentili  

Alberico Gentili (1552–1608), born in San Ginesio (near Macerata, Italy), graduated as doctor of law in 1572 at the University of Perugia. His father Matteo, a physician, was forced as ...
Barbarian Laws

Barbarian Laws  

Until their settlement in the Roman Empire, the German peoples followed oral customary laws. The establishment of the Romano-barbarian kingdoms made necessary the revision of common Roman law and the ...
Basil I

Basil I  

Emperor (867–86) and founder of the Macedonian dynasty; born Thrace or Macedonia 830 or 835 (E.W. Brooks, BZ 20 [1911] 486–91) or on 25 May 836 (Adontz, Etudes 67), died Constantinople 29 Aug. ...
Byzantium

Byzantium  

An ancient Greek city, founded in the 7th century bc, at the southern end of the Bosporus, site of the modern city of Istanbul. It was rebuilt by Constantine the Great in ad 324–30 as Constantinople.
canon law

canon law  

The body of rules or laws developing gradually, imposed by church authority in matters of its own organization and discipline (extending also to matters of belief).
Celsus the Younger

Celsus the Younger  

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(b. before 77 c.e.). A Roman jurist, whose full name was Publius Juventius Celsus Titus Aufidius Hoenius Severianus, was connected with a family established in northern Umbria. The date of ...
Channel Islands law

Channel Islands law  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Law
The Channel Islands comprise two ‘Bailiwicks’, namely Jersey and Guernsey. The former comprises the Island of Jersey, the latter the Islands of Alderney, Brecqhou, Herm, Guernsey, and Sark. ...
civil court

civil court  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Law
A court exercising jurisdiction over civil rather than criminal cases. In England the principal civil courts of first instance are the county courts and the High Court. Magistrates' courts have ...
civil law

civil law  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Law
1 The law of any particular state, now usually called municipal law.2 Roman law.3 A legal system based on Roman law, as distinct from the English system of common law.4 Private law, as opposed to ...
Code Napoléon

Code Napoléon  

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Subject:
History
The first modern codification of French civil law, issued between 1804 and 1810, which sought, under the direction of J. J. Cambacérès, to reorganize the French legal system. Napoleon himself ...
Cognitio and Imperial and Bureaucratic Courts

Cognitio and Imperial and Bureaucratic Courts  

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Cognitio is the examination and adjudication of a legal case by a magistrate. In the formula process, the ordinary legal procedure of the Republic, the magistrate's cognitio was restricted to ...
collections, canonical

collections, canonical  

Ecclesiastical legislative texts organized chronologically or systematically. They could include genuine or apocryphal, authentic (officially promulgated) or private, and general or particular ...
common law

common law  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Law
1 The part of English law based on rules developed by the royal courts during the first three centuries after the Norman Conquest (1066) as a system applicable to the whole country, as opposed to ...
common law of Europe

common law of Europe  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
When jurists speak of a ‘common law of Europe’ they are either speaking of a ius commune that was once in force in much of continental Europe, or of an aspiration to escape from the nationalized law ...
Conditions of Validity

Conditions of Validity  

The conditions of validity are those that must necessarily be fulfilled for an act, whether legal in general or sacramental, to be valid. If these conditions are absent, the act ...
constitution

constitution  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
N.The rules and practices that determine the composition and functions of the organs of central and local government in a state and regulate the relationship between the individual and the state. ...
court

court  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
N.1 A body established by law for the administration of justice by judges or magistrates.2 A hall or building in which a court is held.3 a. The residence of a sovereign. b. The sovereign and her (or ...

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