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Cardinal Richelieu

(1585—1642)

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Abbé de Saint-Cyran

Abbé de Saint-Cyran  

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Religion
(1581–1643), Jean Duvergier de Hauranne, commendatory Abbot of Saint-Cyran from 1620, and one of the authors of Jansenism. He was a close friend of C. O. Jansen, and, attracted to St Augustine's ...
Académie

Académie  

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Literature
Is a word with several different meanings in French cultural history. In the world of education it has designated since the time of Napoleon the 16 regional divisions (each with ...
Académie Française

Académie Française  

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Literature
A French literary academy with a constant membership of forty, responsible for the standard form of the French language and for compiling and revising a definitive dictionary of the French language. ...
Albrecht Wenzel Eusebius von Wallenstein

Albrecht Wenzel Eusebius von Wallenstein  

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Literature
(1583–1634)Duke of Friedland (1625), Duke of Mecklenburg (1629), Czech magnate and military entrepreneur. At the outbreak of the Thirty Years War he remained loyal to Emperor Ferdinand II and in 1621 ...
Alfred de Vigny

Alfred de Vigny  

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Literature
(1797–1863)French Romantic poet, dramatist, and novelist. After an undistinguished ten‐year military career, he established himself as a poet and a novelist in 1826, publishing his Poèmes antiques et ...
Anne of Austria

Anne of Austria  

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History
(1601–66)Wife of Louis XIII of France, whom she married in 1615. She was the daughter of Philip III of Spain. Her friend Madame de Chevreuse was involved in plots against Richelieu, and she was ...
Armand-Jean le Bouthillier de Rancé

Armand-Jean le Bouthillier de Rancé  

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Religion
(1626–1700), reformer of la Trappe. A godson of A. J. P. du Richelieu, by 1636 he held five benefices in commendam, including the Cistercian abbey of la Trappe. He led a worldly life until a sudden ...
Capuchins

Capuchins  

A friar belonging to a branch of the Franciscan order that observes a strict rule drawn up in 1529. The name is recorded from the late 16th century, and comes via obsolete French from Italian ...
Cardinal de Retz

Cardinal de Retz  

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Literature
(1613–79), Abp. of Paris. He was forced into an ecclesiastical career by his family, who had held the see of Paris since 1570. In 1643 he was appointed Coadjutor-Abp. of Paris to his uncle and in ...
Cinq-Mars

Cinq-Mars  

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Literature
(1826).Historical novel by Vigny which takes as its subject the failed plot by Cinq‐Mars and the nobility against Richelieu. Vigny admires Cinq‐Mars's loyalty to his king and shares his ...
Condé

Condé  

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History
A junior branch of the French royal House of Bourbon. The name was first borne by Louis I de Bourbon (1530–69), prince de Condé, a military leader of the Huguenots during the first phase of the ...
devotional Poetry

devotional Poetry  

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Literature
Poetry expressing religious worship or prayer. This is a large and varied category of verse, distinguished from secular poetry of all kinds, especially in the study of medieval lyrics. A secular love ...
Duc de la Rochefoucauld

Duc de la Rochefoucauld  

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Literature
(1613–80)One of the French moralistes, author of Réflexions ou Sentences et maximes morales (1665, with a more definitive edition of 1678). The Maximes are pithy, often epigrammatic, reflections on ...
Duke of Saxe-Weimar Bernhard

Duke of Saxe-Weimar Bernhard  

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Literature
(1604–39).One of the champions of the Protestant cause during the Thirty Years War, Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar had a disastrous start to his military career: in 1622 he was on ...
Edict of Nantes

Edict of Nantes  

(13 April 1598), an edict signed at Nantes by King Henri IV, who granted the Huguenots (his former co-religionists) extensive rights and confirmed earlier edicts of 1564 and 1570. Under ...
éminence grise

éminence grise  

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Literature
A person who exercises power or influence in a certain sphere without holding an official position. The term was originally applied to Cardinal Richelieu's grey-cloaked private secretary, Père Joseph ...
François de Bassompierre

François de Bassompierre  

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Literature
(1579–1646).Half‐German, half‐Lorrain, Bassompierre (also known as the marquis de Chantérac) was one of the ageing Henri IV's favourite companions. He acted as ambassador in Spain, Switzerland, and ...
François de La Mothe le Vayer

François de La Mothe le Vayer  

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Literature
(1588–1672)French sceptic and tutor of Louis XIV. His principal work is Dialogues faits à l'imitation des anciens (1630–1) published under the pseudonym Orasius Tubero; they show the influence of ...
François Eudes Mézeray, sieur de

François Eudes Mézeray, sieur de  

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Literature
(1610–83).Historian. Son of a Normandy surgeon, he studied at the University of Caen and served in the army before becoming a man of letters under the protection of Richelieu ...
François Hédelin Aubignac, abbé d'

François Hédelin Aubignac, abbé d'  

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(1604–76)French dramatist and critic. A member of Richelieu's household, and sharing the Cardinal's interest in the theatre, d'Aubignac became the most influential of the orthodox theorists of ...

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