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I. A. Richards

(1893—1979) literary scholar and educationist

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Alexander Smith

Alexander Smith  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
(1796–1851)Alexander Smith was born in Banff on 12 June 1796, one of four children of a well-known family of architects and builders, and died there on 12 February 1851. ...
Charles Kay Ogden

Charles Kay Ogden  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
 (1889–1957) English book collector of wide-ranging interests.In 1953, he sold his MSS and early printed books, as well as materials on Jeremy Bentham and Lord Brougham, to University College ...
Charles Madge

Charles Madge  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
(1912–1996) South African born poet and sociologistMass-Observation (1937) Non-FictionThe Disappearing Castle (1937) PoetryThe Father Found (1941) PoetryOf Love, Time, and Places (1994) ...
Criterion

Criterion  

(1922–39),an influential literary periodical launched as a quarterly and edited by T. S. Eliot; The Waste Land appeared in its first issue. It became the New Criterion in 1926, and in 1927, briefly, ...
English Association

English Association  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
Founded in 1906 to promote the teaching and advanced study of the English language and of English literature, it mounts conferences and publishes journals, including English and Essays and Studies. ...
F. R. Leavis

F. R. Leavis  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
(1895–1978)British literary critic and university teacher. He was made a CH in 1978.Leavis was educated at Cambridge, first at the Perse School and then at Emmanuel College, where he taught from ...
Frank Plumpton Ramsey

Frank Plumpton Ramsey  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
(1903–30)Cambridge mathematician and philosopher. Ramsey made important contributions to mathematical logic, probability theory, the philosophy of science (see Ramsey sentence), and economics. He ...
John Crowe Ransom

John Crowe Ransom  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
(1888–1974),American poet and critic, was a professor (1937–58) at Kenyon College, Ohio, where he founded and edited the important Kenyon Review, a scholarly publication committed to the close ...
Marianne Moore

Marianne Moore  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
(1887–1972),American poet, was editor (1925–9) of the Dial. Her first volume, Poems (1921), was followed by Observations (1924), Selected Poems (1935), The Pangolin, and Other Verse (1936), and ...
Marshall McLuhan

Marshall McLuhan  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
(1911–80),Canadian scholar. His influential studies of the media of communication and the role of technology in society include The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man (1962), which ...
metaphor

metaphor  

A figure of speech in which a word or phrase is applied to an object or action to which it is not literally applicable. Recorded from the late 15th century, the word comes via French and Latin from ...
New Criticism

New Criticism  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
An important movement in American literary criticism during 1935–60, characterized by close attention to the verbal nuances of lyric poems, considered as self‐sufficient objects detached from their ...
opposition

opposition  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
The logic of opposition, which goes back at least to Aristotle (384–322 bce), makes an important distinction between contradictories (two propositions that cannot be both true or both false) and ...
practical criticism

practical criticism  

In the general sense, the kind of criticism that analyses specific literary works, either as a deliberate application of a previously elaborated theory or as a supposedly non-theoretical ...
Queenie Leavis

Queenie Leavis  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
(1906–81),critic and editor: educ. Cambridge (Girton College); supports career of F. R. Leavis.
Richard Eberhart

Richard Eberhart  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
(1904–2005)American poet, born in Austin, Minnesota. He began publishing with A Bravery of Earth (1930) and maintained a prolific output of works which shun experiment in favour of accessibility. ...
Scrutiny

Scrutiny  

A Cambridge periodical which ran for 19 volumes, 1932–53, edited by L. C. Knights, Donald Culver, Denys Thompson, D. W. Harding, and others, but dominated largely by F. R. Leavis; a 20th issue, with ...
Seven Types of Ambiguity

Seven Types of Ambiguity  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
A critical work by W. Empson, published 1930, rev. 1947, 1953; one of the most enjoyable and influential offshoots from I. A. Richards's experiments with practical criticism.Empson uses the term ...
Waste Land

Waste Land  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
A poem by T. S. Eliot, first published 1922 in the Criterion.It consists of five sections, ‘The Burial of the Dead’, ‘A Game of Chess’, ‘The Fire Sermon’, ‘Death by Water’, and ‘What the Thunder ...
William Empson

William Empson  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
(1906–84)Britishliterary critic, often regarded as one of the greatest of his generation, and poet. A keen and intuitive exponent of ‘close reading’, Empson is often associated with New Criticism and ...

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