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Reformation

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Act of Supremacy

Act of Supremacy  

(1534 and 1559)Enactments of the English Parliament, confirming respectively the supremacy of Henry VIII and Elizabeth I over the Anglican Church. Henry was styled “Supreme Head” of the Church but ...
Anabaptists

Anabaptists  

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Religion
The doctrine that baptism should only be administered to believing adults, held by a radical Protestant sect which emerged during the 1520s and 1530s, following the ideas of reformers such as ...
Anglican parish church music

Anglican parish church music  

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Subject:
Music
At the time of the Reformation, a surprising number (though probably far from a majority) of English parish churches possessed organs. These were usually small instruments which can have had ...
Anne Boleyn

Anne Boleyn  

(c. 1507–36),2nd queen of Henry VIII. Sir Thomas Boleyn, Anne's father, descended from London merchants, was a courtier and became gentleman of the bedchamber to Henry VIII. Anne spent several years ...
Antichrist

Antichrist  

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Religion
A great personal opponent of Christ, expected by the early Church to appear before the end of the world. The name is recorded from Old English and comes via Old French or ecclesiastical Latin from ...
Antonio Possevino

Antonio Possevino  

(c.1533–1611),Jesuit missionary and papal diplomat, born in Mantua, where he entered the Jesuits in 1559. The following year he was sent to work amongst the Waldenses in Piedmont, and ...
architectural styles and features

architectural styles and features  

With the reign of King David I (1124–53), Scotland became a part of the western European polity of feudalism. Its most visible symbol was the castle, which was introduced by ...
art, Highland

art, Highland  

A widely recognized concept of Highland art is witness to a distinctive visual and aesthetic tradition; powerful, persistent, and conservative in character, it gives the impression of belonging in a ...
art trade

art trade  

Evidence for the import of works of art before the Reformation is also evidence for the existence of an art trade, but the first identifiable art dealer is John Clerk ...
Augsburg Confession

Augsburg Confession  

A statement of the Lutheran position approved by Luther that was presentd to Charles V at the German city of Augsburg on 25 June 1535.
Augustinian canons

Augustinian canons  

(‘Regular’ or ‘Black’ canons) had their origin in the mid‐11th‐cent. ecclesiastical reform movement. Earlier communities of clerics (or ‘canons’) staffing cathedrals and large churches and organized ...
baptism customs

baptism customs  

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History
Baptism was held to be essential to salvation in the Middle Ages and was therefore performed as soon as possible after birth. After the Reformation the Book of Common Prayer ...
Bauernkrieg

Bauernkrieg  

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Literature
A peasants' revolt which began near Schaffhausen in 1524 and spread in 1525 over most of southern and central Germany. It was the most serious of six risings, of which ...
Bekennende Kirche

Bekennende Kirche  

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Literature
A movement in the German Evangelical Church which was originally known as Bekenntniskirche (Confessional Church) to emphasize its adherence to the Confessions of the Reformation. It was founded in ...
Beneficio Di Cristo

Beneficio Di Cristo  

Is the most famous work associated with sixteenth-century reform thought in Italy. Despite extensive scholarly literature devoted to it, no agreement about the nature of its theology has been ...
benefit of clergy

benefit of clergy  

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History
The exemption of the English clergy and nuns from the jurisdiction of the ordinary civil courts, granted in the Middle Ages but abolished in 1827.
Bernhard Kellermann

Bernhard Kellermann  

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Literature
(Fürth, 1879–1951, nr. Potsdam),a journalist and foreign correspondent, wrote five novels between 1904 and 1913. Yester und Li (1904), sub-titled Geschichte einer Sehnsucht, records a poet's ...
Beverley

Beverley  

Yorkshire town, in the Hull valley. John, bishop of York, founded or restored a monastery there; he was later canonized as St John of Beverley (1037). The archbishops of York were lords of the town, ...
Bible, the English

Bible, the English  

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Overview Page
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Religion
Apart from paraphrases attributed to Caedmon and the translation by Bede of part of the Gospel of St John, the earliest attempts at translation into English of the Holy Scriptures are the 9th‐ and ...
biblical commentaries

biblical commentaries  

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Literature
Works commenting on and interpreting the books of the Bible have a long history and have had a powerful influence on literature and literary theory. Paul in his epistles began ...

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