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realism/anti-realism

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Antoine Arnauld

Antoine Arnauld  

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Overview Page
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Religion
(1612–94), French theologian and philosopher. A brother of Angelique Arnauld (see following entry), from 1638 he was in touch with Saint-Cyran and in 1641 he retired to Port-Royal. His book De la ...
Benedetto Croce

Benedetto Croce  

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Overview Page
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Literature
(1866–1952)Italian idealist philosopher and the leading Italian intellectual of his day.He was born in Percasseroli, the son of a rich landowner, and lost his parents in an earthquake in 1883. ...
British philosophy today

British philosophy today  

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Overview Page
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Philosophy
Most (although not all) of the philosophy practised in Britain today is firmly within the tradition of analytic philosophy, a tradition shared with North America, South Africa, and Australia (and ...
conceptualism

conceptualism  

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Overview Page
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Philosophy
The theory of universals that sees them as shadows of our grasp of concepts. Conceptualism lies midway between out-and-out nominalism, holding that nothing is common to objects except our applying ...
concrete universal

concrete universal  

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Overview Page
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Philosophy
A key conception in the philosophy of Hegel, that certifies the reality of categories. A category is a synthesis of two opposed abstractions (e.g. becoming is a synthesis of being and not-being) and ...
critical realism

critical realism  

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Overview Page
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Philosophy
(philosophy) A stance that is distinguished from naïve or common sense realism in that it involves an acceptance of both the independent, objective existence of the world and of the contention that ...
David Lewis

David Lewis  

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Overview Page
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Philosophy
(1941–2002)American philosopher. Lewis was born in Oberlin, Ohio, and educated at Swarthmore, at Oxford for a year, and at Harvard where he gained his doctorate in 1967. He taught at the university ...
entity

entity  

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Overview Page
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Philosophy
A real thing. Entity realism is the term associated with the contemporary Canadian philosopher Ian Hacking, whereby the issue of scientific realism is not one of the truth or falsity of scientific ...
exchangeability

exchangeability  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
In the subjective or personalist theory of probability a substitute must be found for the apparently objective or realist notion of an unknown probability, say of a coin coming up heads. The ...
Georg Christoph Lichtenberg

Georg Christoph Lichtenberg  

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Overview Page
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Literature
(1742–99).German physicist whose fame rests, apart from an experiment in electricity, on aphorisms. He was a man of the Enlightenment: ‘All the mischief in the world may be put ...
Henri Poincaré

Henri Poincaré  

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(1854–1912)Frenchmathematician. From 1889 he worked on the three-body problem in both its general and restricted forms, and showed that there are no exact solutions to the n-body problem. He expanded ...
irrealism

irrealism  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
Coinage from the late 1980s for positions either that believe that traditional realism versus anti-realism debates are not well formed, or that sympathize with opposition to realism without wanting ...
Jerry Alan Fodor

Jerry Alan Fodor  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
(1935– )American philosopher of mind. Born in New York city and educated at Columbia and Princeton, Fodor teaches at Rutgers and the City University of New York. He is known for a resolute realism ...
José Ortega y Gasset

José Ortega y Gasset  

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Overview Page
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Philosophy
(1883–1955)Spanish philosopher, opponent of Franco and critic of modern democracy.Born in Madrid of wealthy parents, Ortega was educated at the University of Madrid, where he obtained his doctorate ...
Karl Leonhard Reinhold

Karl Leonhard Reinhold  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
(1758–1823)Austrian philosopher who worked in Germany. Reinhold was professor at Jena from 1787 to 1794, and subsequently at Kiel. After a period as a follower of Kant, he veered towards the idealism ...
Michael Dummett

Michael Dummett  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
(1925–2011).British philosopher of language, logic, and mathematics, noted for his exposition of Frege's philosophy and defence of anti-realism. Dummett characterizes anti-realism in terms of a ...
moral realism

moral realism  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
Realism as applied to the judgements of ethics, and to the values, obligations, rights, etc. that are referred to in ethical theory. The leading idea is to see moral truth as grounded in the nature ...
naturalism

naturalism  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
Most generally, a sympathy with the view that ultimately nothing resists explanation by the methods characteristic of the natural sciences. A naturalist will be opposed, for example, to mind-body ...
optimism and pessimism

optimism and pessimism  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
The term ‘optimism’ is first used in English in 1759, in reference to the work of Leibniz. The term ‘pessimism’ is recorded as first used by Coleridge in 1795. The best-known and certainly the ...
Peter Abelard

Peter Abelard  

(1079–1142)French scholar, theologian, and philosopher. His independence of mind brought him into frequent conflict with the authorities and led to his being twice condemned for heresy. He lectured ...

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