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Alfred Adler

Alfred Adler  

(1870–1937)Austrian psychiatrist who founded a school of thought based on the psychology of the individual and introduced the concept of the inferiority feeling (later called inferiority ...
André Breton

André Breton  

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Literature
(1896–1966)French poet.Breton was born in Tinchebray, Orne. His early involvement with the dadaists revealed itself in such works as Mont de piété (1919); in the same year he co-founded the ...
Apuleius

Apuleius  

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(born c.123 ad),Roman writer, born in Africa. His writings are characterized by an exuberant and bizarre use of language and he is best known for the Metamorphoses (The Golden Ass), a picaresque ...
archetype

archetype  

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Literature
An original which has been imitated; (in Jungian theory) a primitive mental image inherited from the earliest human ancestors, and supposed to be present in the collective unconscious.
behaviourism

behaviourism  

n. an approach to psychology postulating that only observable behaviour need be studied, thus denying any importance to unconscious processes. Behaviourists are concerned with the laws regulating the ...
cathexis

cathexis  

In psychoanalysis, the emotional charge associated with an instinct (3), or the process of investing psychic energy in a part of the body or an instinctual object. The Austrian physician Josef Breuer ...
Chinese ideas of the mind

Chinese ideas of the mind  

In traditional Chinese philosophy and science the psychological was almost never regarded separately from the physiological. The stance was holistic, in contrast to common Indo-European thinking ...
collective unconscious

collective unconscious  

In analytical psychology, a part of the unconscious (2) additional to the personal unconscious, containing memories, instincts, and experiences that are shared by all people. According to Carl Gustav ...
death-drive

death-drive  

The tendency inherent in all organic things to return to an inorganic state. The concept is part of a dualism developed late in Sigmund Freud's career consisting of two forces the life-drive ...
drive

drive  

The motivation that results in an animal performing a particular activity. There are two types: primary drive, which arises as a direct result of tissue requirements (e.g. the need for food or ...
entelechy

entelechy  

An outmoded theory holding that evolution proceeds by the realization of that which was always potential. The word is from the Greek entelekheia, ‘become perfect’. See also aristogenesis; ...
Eros

Eros  

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In Greek mythology, the god of love, son of Aphrodite; his Roman equivalent is Cupid. The name comes via Latin from Greek, literally ‘sexual love’.A winged statue of Eros over the fountain in ...
Heraclitus

Heraclitus  

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(c.500 bc),Greek philosopher. He believed that fire is the origin of all things and that permanence is an illusion, everything being in a (harmonious) process of constant change.
metempsychosis

metempsychosis  

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Religion
The supposed transmigration at death of the soul of a human being or animal into a new body of the same or a different species, chiefly in Pythagoreanism and certain Eastern religions.
myth

myth  

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Literature
A traditional story, especially one concerning the early history of a people or explaining some natural or social phenomenon, and typically involving supernatural beings or events.
Naassenes

Naassenes  

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(Heb. , ‘serpent’). A Gnostic sect described by Hippolytus (Haer. 5. 6–17). It has sometimes been held that the name represents the Hebrew equivalent of the Greek Ophites (q.v.).See bibl. s.v. ...
Presocratics

Presocratics  

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Philosophy
Although the term ought to refer to any Greek philosopher from c. 600 bc to c.400 bc, the last year of Socrates' life, it is customarily reserved mainly for those thinkers who attempted systematic ...
projection

projection  

1 In psychoanalysis, a defence mechanism in which intolerable feelings, impulses, or thoughts are falsely attributed to other people. Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) developed the concept initially in ...
psychic

psychic  

adj.1. of or relating to the psyche. 2. relating to parapsychological phenomena. 3. describing a person who is allegedly endowed with extrasensory or psychokinetic powers.1. of or relating to the ...
psychology

psychology  

(sy-kol-ŏji)the science concerned with the study of behaviour and its related mental processes. The different schools of psychology include behaviourism, cognitive psychology, psychoanalysis, and ...

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