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protein

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accelase

accelase  

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A mixture of enzymes that hydrolyse proteins, used to shorten the maturation time of cheeses and intensify the flavour of processed cheese.
active transport

active transport  

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The movement of an ion or molecule across a cell membrane against a concentration or electrochemical gradient. The process requires specific enzymes and energy supplied by ATP.
albumin

albumin  

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(al-bew-min)a protein that is soluble in water and coagulated by heat. serum a. a protein found in blood plasma that is important for the maintenance of plasma volume.
allosteric

allosteric  

Applied to a protein molecule that has two or more sites at which it can bind (combine) with other molecules, such that binding with one influences its binding with another. Some (allosteric) ...
allosteric enzyme

allosteric enzyme  

A regulatory enzyme whose catalytic activity is modified by the noncovalent attachment of a specific metabolite to a site on the enzyme other than the catalytic site.
allozyme

allozyme  

Any one of a number of different forms of the same enzyme that are coded by different alleles at the same locus.
alpha amino acid

alpha amino acid  

An amino acid in which the amino group is attached to the number two, or ‘alpha’ carbon, adjacent to the carboxyl group. Compounds of this type represent the basic building blocks of peptides and ...
alpha helix

alpha helix  

The most common form of secondary structure in proteins, in which the polypeptide chain is coiled into a helix. The helical structure is held in place by weak hydrogen bonds between the N-H and C=O ...
amino acid

amino acid  

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An organic acid carrying an amino group. Proteins are linear polymers of the l-forms of ~20 common amino acids linked by peptide bonds.
amino acid profile

amino acid profile  

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The amino acid composition of a protein.
amino acids, sulphur

amino acids, sulphur  

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Two amino acids—methionine and cysteine—contain sulphur in the side-chain; although cysteine is not an essential amino acid, it can only be synthesized from methionine, and it is conventional to ...
amino-acid sequence

amino-acid sequence  

The sequence of amino-acid residues in a polypeptide chain that represents the primary structure of a protein. This sequence is unique to each protein and influences the protein's secondary, ...
aminogram

aminogram  

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A diagrammatic representation of the amino acid composition of a peptide or protein. A plasma aminogram is the composition of the free amino acid pool in blood plasma.
anabolism

anabolism  

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n. the synthesis of complex molecules, such as proteins and fats, from simpler ones by living things. See also anabolic, metabolism.
anaphylaxis

anaphylaxis  

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Extreme sensitivity to an allergen, clinically manifest as acute-onset swelling of mucosal tissues including the trachea, where it causes life-threatening obstruction of the airway.
antibody

antibody  

A protein (see immunoglobulin) produced by certain white blood cells (plasma cells) in response to entry into the body of a foreign substance (antigen) in order to render it harmless. An ...
antigen

antigen  

A molecule, normally a protein, glycoprotein, or polysaccharide, usually found on the surface of a cell, which can interact with receptors found on lymphocytes or antibodies. See also immunogen.
apoenzyme

apoenzyme  

An inactive enzyme that must associate with a specific cofactor molecule or ion in order to function. Compare holoenzyme.
avenalin

avenalin  

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Proteins present in oats.
Bacillus thuringiensis

Bacillus thuringiensis  

A naturally occurring bacterium that produces a protein which kills caterpillars and some moths and butterflies. It is a biopesticide that is used extensively by the microbial pesticide industry.

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