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prokaryote

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archaea

archaea  

The domain comprising what were formerly known as the archaebacteria. What used to be the kingdom Archaebacteria has been split into two kingdoms: Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. The domain Archaea ...
Archaebacteria

Archaebacteria  

A subkingdom of the Prokaryotae (See Classification). The archaebacteria are placed in a group separate from the rest of the bacteria (the eubacteria) on the basis of a variety of biochemical ...
Bacteria

Bacteria  

One of three superkingdoms (domains) of cellular organisms, the others being Archaea and Eukarya. Bacteria are unicellular and anucleate i.e. prokaryotes. They embrace a great diversity of forms, ...
bacteria

bacteria  

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Unicellular or threadlike micro-organisms that reproduce by fission (2) and are often parasitic and liable to cause diseases. bacterial adj. bacterium sing. [From Greek bakterion a little rod, ...
Borrelia burgdorferi

Borrelia burgdorferi  

The spirochaete, transmitted by ticks, that causes Lyme disease in humans. Genome sequencing has revealed that the bacterium contains a 910,725 bp megachromosome and 17 different plasmids with a ...
capsule

capsule  

1 The gelatinous, outer surface layer of a prokaryotic cell (also known as the sheath in cyanobacteria), which is composed primarily of polysaccharides. In pathogenic bacteria, and possibly in ...
cell

cell  

1 The fundamental autonomous unit of plant and animal bodies, consisting of, at least, a cell membrane containing cytoplasm and nuclear material, but often having a more complex structure. Simple ...
Cell Evolution

Cell Evolution  

All living organisms are composed of cells, which constitute the basic structural and functional unit of the biological world. According to one definition, a cell is a small, usually microscopic ...
cell membrane

cell membrane  

Any membrane that is found in a living cell, especially the plasma membrane, which forms the cell boundary. Other cell membranes include the nuclear envelope; the tonoplast, which encloses the ...
Chlamydia

Chlamydia  

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(order Chlamydiales)A genus of bacteria with the characteris-tics of the order. There are 2 species, both of which are parasitic and capable of causing disease (e.g. trachoma and psittacosis).
chromatophore

chromatophore  

In many animals, a cell containing pigment granules; by dispersing or contracting such granules certain animals are able to change their colour.
domain

domain  

The highest taxonomic category in a classification system based on comparisons of ribosomal RNA. There are three domains: Archaea; Eubacteria; and Eukarya. Each domain comprises organisms that are ...
electron transport chain

electron transport chain  

A system of electron carriers, present in mitochondria and the cell membranes of prokaryotes, which sequentially transport electrons and/or protons previously removed from metabolites in glycolysis, ...
endosymbiotic hypothesis

endosymbiotic hypothesis  

The hypothesis that the plastid and mitochondrial organelles evolved from prokaryotic endosymbionts within eukaryotic cells early in eukaryotic evolution. At least two endosymbiotic events are ...
Eubacteria

Eubacteria  

One of the three major domains of living organisms, comprising aerobic and anaerobic bacteria occurring in virtually all habitats. Some live in or on the bodies of other organisms, and may cause ...
eukaryote

eukaryote  

An organism consisting of cells in which the genetic material is contained within a distinct nucleus. All organisms except bacteria are eukaryotes. See Eukarya. Compare prokaryote.
ferrodoxin

ferrodoxin  

A non-haem iron protein with a low redox potential, which functions as an electron carrier in both photosynthesis (in prokaryotes and eukaryotes) and nitrogen fixation (in certain prokaryotes).
initiator

initiator  

Transfer ribonucleic acid (t-RNA), that in eukaryotes carries methionine and in prokaryotes N-formylmethionine, which binds to the small unit of a ribosome bearing messenger ribonucleic acid (m-RNA), ...
intron

intron  

In eukaryotes and some prokaryotes, part of the DNA of genes that is not expressed in the polypeptide chains or in m-RNA. Compare exon.
kingdom

kingdom  

The highest level of taxonomic classification. All organisms fall into one of three currently accepted kingdoms, each of which has unique and unifying characteristics: eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and ...

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