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processual Theory

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cognitive Archaeology

cognitive Archaeology  

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Overview Page
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Archaeology
[Th]A branch of archaeology that is primarily concerned with the study of past ways of thinking and symbolic structures from patterns in material culture.
critical theory

critical theory  

1. Theories associated with the neo-Marxist Frankfurt school which involve the ideological analysis of society and culture. Influenced by Marxist theory and Freudian psychoanalytic theory.2. Any ...
cultural ecology

cultural ecology  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
[Th]An approach developed by Julian Steward in the 1930s that focused on the dynamic interactions between human societies and their environments. Within this approach, culture is seen as the primary ...
Culture Historical Theory

Culture Historical Theory  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
Is actually a misnomer deriving more from the needs of the organization of this volume than from any historical reality. The culture historical approach was really just that, an approach ...
culture history

culture history  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
[Th]An approach to archaeological data that orders structures and artefacts into a basic sequence of events in time and space, usually as a generalized description of human achievement under broad ...
Culture-people Hypothesis

Culture-people Hypothesis  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
The culture-people model proposes that distinctive archaeological cultures, which are comprised of “packages” of artifacts repeatedly used together in a particular time and place, are the remains of ...
environmental archaeology

environmental archaeology  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
[Ge]A branch of archaeology concerned especially with documenting and understanding the physical environment in which particular cultural systems operated. The focus of such work is sometimes ...
general systems theory

general systems theory  

A theory of organization and wholeness, introduced by the Austrian biologist Ludwig von Bertalanffy (1901–72) in 1940 and expounded at length in his book General Systems Theory (1968), after he had ...
interpretive archaeology

interpretive archaeology  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
[Th]An approach to archaeology that builds out of post‐processual thinking as a simple reaction to processual archaeology and instead sees interpretation as a creative process with a number of key ...
Leslie A. White

Leslie A. White  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
(1900–75) [Bi]American anthropologist well known for promoting evolutionary thinking in archaeology and anthropology. He viewed culture as a system and saw the development of societies as being ...
middle range theory

middle range theory  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
[De]A term developed in sociology by Robert K. Merton in the late 1940s as a way of connecting high‐level social theory with empirically observable patterns. Similarly, in archaeology, it has become ...
New Archaeology

New Archaeology  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
[Ge]A movement that began in America in the 1960s, aimed at making archaeology more scientific, with explicit theory and rigorous methodologies. At the heart of the thinking was a positivist belief ...
objectivity

objectivity  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
[Th]The idea that things exist, or that statements about things are true, in absolute terms and independently of human existence or belief. Such a view stands in opposition to subjectivism, which ...
paradigm

paradigm  

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Overview Page
Essentially, a large-scale and generalized model that provides a viewpoint from which the real world may be investigated. It differs from most other models, which are abstractions based on data ...
positivism

positivism  

A philosophical system which holds that every rationally justifiable assertion can be scientifically verified or is capable of logical or mathematical proof, and which therefore rejects metaphysics ...
post-processual Theory

post-processual Theory  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
The term post-processual was first used by Ian Hodder in 1985. Since then few writers have adopted it to define their own work. It has become more regularly used in ...
scientific method

scientific method  

The approach that science uses to gain knowledge, based on making observations, formulating laws and theories, and testing theories or hypotheses by experimentation.
social change

social change  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
1 The process of altered status, values, behavior, and mode of speech and dress that accompany social mobility.2 The alteration of a society as its level of wealth and other resources changes. This ...
understanding

understanding  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
[Th]Different philosophical underpinnings to the way in which archaeological problems are approached carry with them specific implications for the way in which the results or outcomes are presented. ...

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