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poverty

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Aboriginal economic development

Aboriginal economic development  

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Since 1788 and the European colonisation of Australia, the continental population has grown rapidly and national income has increased, making Australia one of the world's rich or developed nations. ...
absolute poverty

absolute poverty  

An extreme state of poverty, in which the standard of living is below the minimum that is needed for the maintenance of life and health. Contrast relative poverty.
ACOSS

ACOSS  

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The Australian Council of Social Service (ACOSS) is the national peak organisation for community welfare organisations in Australia. Since its establishment in 1956, ACOSS has fulfilled an advocacy ...
Agenda 21

Agenda 21  

A set of proposals, made at the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development, Rio de Janeiro, to promote sustainable development. It sets out environmental strategies for managing coasts, ...
Agriculture and Animal Husbandry

Agriculture and Animal Husbandry  

From 1740 to 1850, the organization and efficiency of much of western European agriculture were transformed. Sometimes called an agricultural revolution, this process was prior to or concomitant with ...
aid

aid  

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Transferring resources from developed to less developed countries. Bilateral aid is from one donor to a recipient country, while multilateral aid comes from a group of countries. Emergency aid is ...
Alexian Brothers and Nuns

Alexian Brothers and Nuns  

A religious community specifically devoted to caring for the sick, with special attention to the dying. The order traces its origins to the Beghard communities of the Low Countries, particularly ...
Alexis, Legend of Saint

Alexis, Legend of Saint  

The starting-point for the legend of St Alexis was probably the existence at Edessa, around the 5th c., of an ascetic famous for his extreme poverty and humility. Starting from ...
amoral familism

amoral familism  

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Social action persistently oriented to the economic interests of the nuclear family. In a controversial account of poverty in a village in southern Italy (The Moral Basis of a Backward Society, ...
Appalachia.

Appalachia.  

Geographically, Appalachia includes the mountains and valleys of states eastward from the Ohio River to the piedmont and northward from Georgia to Maine. Appalachia most often refers to the more ...
Arthur Cecil Pigou

Arthur Cecil Pigou  

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(1877 –1959)A leading neoclassical economist noted for his formal analysis of the methods of increasing economic welfare—most famously in The Economics of Welfare (1920). Like Alfred Marshall, Pigou ...
Australian Settlement

Australian Settlement  

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The concept of an Australian Settlement has increasingly come into use as a way of framing political history and Australian political thought. Although the range, character and significance of a ...
bandit

bandit  

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History
N. pl. bandits or banditti bænˈdiṯē1 a robber or outlaw belonging to a gang and typically operating in an isolated or lawless area.2 slang an enemy aircraft.banditry n.[...]
Bartolo da Sassoferrato

Bartolo da Sassoferrato  

(1313–57),Italian jurist and political theorist. He studied law at Perugia and Bologna and practised as a judicial assessor at Todi and Pisa, and from 1343 taught law at Perugia. ...
beggar

beggar  

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History
The Elizabethan Poor Law Acts of 1597–1601 ordered that beggars should be punished by whipping. Examples of such punishment being meted out can be found in quarter sessions and parish ...
Beguines

Beguines  

A member of a lay sisterhood in the Low Countries, formed in the 12th century and not bound by vows; members were allowed to leave their societies for marriage. They are still represented by small ...
Benjamin Seebohm Rowntree

Benjamin Seebohm Rowntree  

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(1871–1954)A company director and chairman (1923–41) of Rowntree (the chocolate manufacturer) in York, Seebohm Rown-tree was also a social reformer, philanthropist, and social researcher, with strong ...
biological reductionism

biological reductionism  

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A theoretical approach that aims to explain all social or cultural phenomena in biological terms, denying them any causal autonomy. Twentieth-century incarnations of biological reductionism have ...
birth control

birth control  

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Religion
Any method that is used to reduce births, including celibacy, delayed marriage, contraception, and sterilization. See also family planning.
canon

canon  

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Religion
Originally (in the Roman Catholic Church), a member of certain orders of clergy that live communally according to an ecclesiastical rule in the same way as monks (also as canon regular or regular ...

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