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porcelain

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annealing

annealing  

A form of heat treatment applied to a metal to soften it, relieve internal stresses and instabilities, and make it easier to work or machine. It consists of heating the metal to a specified ...
arcanum

arcanum  

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[from the Latin arcanum, ‘mystery’]The name given in the early 18th century to the formula for making true porcelain. An arcanist was someone in possession of this secret.
Belleek porcelain

Belleek porcelain  

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A porcelain factory founded in 1857 in County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland, which produced a very light, translucent body covered with an iridescent glaze. It manufactured small, ornate objects as ...
Berlin porcelain

Berlin porcelain  

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*Porcelain made in Berlin from 1751. The first factory was founded by Wilhelm Kaspar Wegely and operated for five years producing good quality, hard-paste porcelain table wares, vases, and figures. A ...
biscuit

biscuit  

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Unglazed, fired clay ware. White, soft-paste biscuit porcelain was particularly developed at Sèvres from 1753 onwards for the manufacture of figures and groups. Its appearance is similar to marble, ...
blanc de chine

blanc de chine  

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A French name given in the 19th century to pure white Chinese porcelain made at Dehua, Fujian province from the 17th century onwards. Figures, especially of deities, animals, cups, and dishes were ...
bocage

bocage  

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(Norman French, ‘farmland criss-crossed by hedges and trees’)Moulded leaves and flowers which form the background to a porcelain figure or group.
body

body  

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The term used to describe the material pottery or porcelain is made from.
bone china

bone china  

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A type of porcelain containing bone ash, making it pure white, hard, and translucent. A patent was first taken out in the 1740s by Thomas Fry at Bow for the use of bone ash, but bone china in its ...
bourdaloue

bourdaloue  

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An oval-shaped chamber pot, usually of porcelain, used mainly by ladies when travelling. It was named after Louis Bourdaloue (1632–1704), a French Jesuit preacher, whose sermons were so popular that ...
Bow

Bow  

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One of the earliest English porcelain factories, situated in Stratford, in the East End of London. It was founded in the mid-1740s by the Irish painter Thomas Frye and glass maker Edward Heylyn. ...
Bristol porcelain

Bristol porcelain  

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Benjamin Lund set up a factory making soft-paste porcelain in Bristol in 1749, producing small items such as cream jugs and sauce boats, but in 1752 the factory was taken over by Worcester, so its ...
bucrane

bucrane  

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. (pl. bucranes, bucrania).Ornament in the form of an ox-skull or head frequently associated with festoons and garlands, found especially on the metopes of the Roman Doric Order. See also ...
Buen Retiro

Buen Retiro  

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A porcelain factory in Buen Retiro park, Madrid, founded in 1759 by Charles III when he acceded to the Spanish throne. All equipment, materials, and craftsmen were brought from the Capodimonte ...
camaïeu

camaïeu  

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A French term which means ‘monochrome’. Painting en camaïeu is found on porcelain, pottery, and enamel and was particularly popular at Sèvres in the 18th century.
cameo

cameo  

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Small-scale sculpture in which the design stands in relief above the surface. It is the opposite of intaglio. Often, the term refers specifically to a portrait cut in a gemstone; this form was highly ...
Canton

Canton  

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The term given to a distinctive style of Chinese export porcelain of the 19th century, which was first produced for the Middle East and then later for Europe and America. Large vases, dessert ...
Capodimonte

Capodimonte  

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A porcelain factory founded in 1743 by Charles III, King of Naples. Its wares are usually of a fine, pure white, translucent soft-paste which provides a suitable background for the painted designs ...
celadon

celadon  

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European term for a type of Chinese stoneware also known as greenware; the name derives from the colour of the dress worn by the shepherd Céladon in the stage version ...
ceramics

ceramics  

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[from the Greek keramos, ‘potter's earth’]A clay-based product, usually divided into pottery (such as earthenware, stoneware, and faience) and porcelain (soft-paste, hard-paste, and bone china).

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