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Adalbert of Prague

Adalbert of Prague  

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(956–97),bishop and missionary martyr. Born at Libice (Bohemia) of a princely family, he was educated by Adalbert of Magdeburg. On the latter's death he returned to Prague, the proud possessor of a ...
Adam Jerzy Czartoryski, Prince

Adam Jerzy Czartoryski, Prince  

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(1770–1861)Polish statesman and nationalist leader. A cousin of the last independent king of Poland, he worked unfailingly at the restoration of his country when Russia, Prussia, and Austria had ...
amelioratio terrae

amelioratio terrae  

Medieval term for land reclamation. An initial colonizing phase of settlement extension covered Carolingian Europe in the 8th and 9th centuries. The second wave swept almost all of Europe from ...
Anders' Army

Anders' Army  

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Popular name given to the 2nd Polish Corps which fought in the Italian campaign under the command of General Władysław Anders (1892–1970).After the German attack on the Soviet Union ...
Angevins in central Europe

Angevins in central Europe  

Descendants of Charles of Anjou and a branch of the *Árpád dynasty, Charles I (1301/08/10–42) and Louis I (the Great) (1326–82, r.1342–82), through marriage, conquest, and diplomacy expanded ...
Angevins of Hungary

Angevins of Hungary  

The Angevins of Hungary were descended from the Angevins of Naples. In 1269 Charles I of Anjou concluded a double marriage treaty with the Árpáds (Charles II marrying Mary of ...
annals and chronicles: central/eastern Europe—Polish-Hungarian Chronicle

annals and chronicles: central/eastern Europe—Polish-Hungarian Chronicle  

Chronicle preserved in two versions in Polish MSS, written c.1227 in Croatia; narrating the primary history of the Hungarians, based on written and oral tradition as well as on the ...
Arthur Seyss-Inquart

Arthur Seyss-Inquart  

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(b. 22 July 1892, d. 16 Oct. 1946).Austrian Nazi leader Born into the German minority in Stannern (Moravia), he qualified and practised as a lawyer in Vienna. As an active member of various Fascist ...
Ashkenazim

Ashkenazim  

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Religion
Jews whose ancestors lived in the Middle Ages in Germany and the surrounding countries, as distinct from those with a Spanish or oriental ancestry, the Sephardim. The name Ashkenaz in the Bible ...
Baltic Sea

Baltic Sea  

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This entry contains two subentries: An Overview, Regional NaviesThe Baltic Sea, including the Gulfs of Bothnia, Finland, and Riga but excluding The Sound and the Danish straits, has an ...
Baltic States

Baltic States  

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(1934)A mutual defence pact between Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. Soon after World War I there were negotiations for an alliance between all the countries which had recently broken away from the ...
Balts

Balts  

The Balts, who reached the banks of the Baltic around 500 bc, are among the oldest Indo-European peoples. From the time of the departure of the Goths, Pomeranians and Pruthenians ...
Battle of Grunwald

Battle of Grunwald  

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(15 July 1410)Fought in southern Prussia. In the process of leading a crusade against pagans, the Teutonic Knights occupied lands claimed by Christian Poland and pagan Lithuania. Nevertheless, after ...
Belarus

Belarus  

A territory formerly also known as Belorussia (White Russia) which had been under Polish and Lithuanian domination for centuries, until it came under Russian control in the late eighteenth century. ...
biological warfare

biological warfare  

The use of pathogenic organisms as weapons in armed conflict and/or the deliberate destruction of public health defenses against pathogens, such as water purification systems, as was done in Iraq in ...
Bohemian Brethren

Bohemian Brethren  

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Later known as ‘Moravian Brethren’ and ‘Unitas Fratrum’. They were a group of Utraquists who formally separated from that body in 1467; they stood for a simple and unworldly Christianity. Organized ...
Boleslas I of Bohemia

Boleslas I of Bohemia  

(929–972)Prince of Bohemia from 935 to 972, creator of the unified Czech State, Boleslas (Boleslav) took power in 935 by assassinating the reigning prince Wenceslas I, his elder brother ...
Boleslas II the Bold

Boleslas II the Bold  

(1041/42–1081)Boleslas the Bold or the Generous, in Polish Bolesław Śmiały or Szczodry, Polish prince and from 1076 king of Poland, was the son of the Polish prince Casimir the ...
Boleslas III the Wry-mouthed

Boleslas III the Wry-mouthed  

(1086–1138)Boleslas III the Wry-mouthed, in Polish Bolesław Krzywousty (1086–1138), Polish prince, was the son of the duke of Poland, Ladislas Herman (Władysław Herman). After his father's death ...
Bolesław I Chrobry

Bolesław I Chrobry  

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(966/7–1025), Duke of Poland from 992 to 1025 and King of Poland from April to June 1025.Bolesław I Chrobry (“the Brave”) was the son of Mieszko I, a prince ...

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