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Adam and Eve

Adam and Eve  

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Religion
The first parents of the human race, whose story is told in the opening chapters of the book of Genesis. There is no doubt that until the nineteenth century Adam and Eve were held to be historical ...
Adam's Peak

Adam's Peak  

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Religion
Śrī Pada. Sacred mountain in Śri Lankā, at the top of which (a place of pilgrimage) a hollow shape is identified by adherents of the relevant religions as the footprint of Adam, the Buddha, Śiva, or ...
Adhemar de Monteil

Adhemar de Monteil  

(d. 1098), Bp. of Le Puy from some time between 1080 and 1087. In 1095 Urban II summoned the Council of Clermont from Le Puy and made Adhémar his representative on the First Crusade. Adhémar's death ...
Adhemar of Chabannes

Adhemar of Chabannes  

(989–1034) Monk, chronicler, composer of liturgical music, and forger.More of his autograph MSS survive than for any other author from the early MA. He is best known for his ...
Aiyappaṉ

Aiyappaṉ  

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Religion
A popular god in Kerala and Tamil Nadu, also known as Hariharaputra—‘Son of Harihara (Viṣṇu/Śiva)'—and Śāstā (‘ruler, teacher’). In mythology, he is the son of Śiva and Mohinī, a female form of ...
al- Madīna

al- Madīna  

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Religion
Yathrib, ‘the town’ to which Muḥammad made the hijra at the invitation of its inhabitants. It is situated in the Ḥijāz, and is the place where the earliest organized forms ...
ʿAliyah

ʿAliyah  

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Religion
(Heb., ‘ascent’).1 Emigrating from the diaspora to the land of Israel to become a permanent resident.2 The calling up of a member of the congregation in a synagogue ...
ʿaliyyah

ʿaliyyah  

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Religion
(; Ascent, going up), a word applied to three different kinds of ascent.Ascent to Heaven. The only explicit reference in the Bible to a miraculous ascent to heaven is ...
Alps

Alps  

Of Celtic origin, the word “Alps” means “high summit”, “rock”, and designates the largest and highest of the European mountain ranges, extending in the form of an arc 1000 kilometres ...
Āḻvārs

Āḻvārs  

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Religion
6th–9th centuries ce)The name given to twelve South Indian poet-saints, whose works, and the personal experience of God that they evoked, were highly influential in the development and practice of ...
Amarnāth

Amarnāth  

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Religion
A tīrtha in Kashmir, where an ice formation, discovered in the 19th century, is worshipped as a Śiva liṅga. Although in an area currently liable to terrorist attacks, it remains a popular pilgrimage ...
Angela of Foligno

Angela of Foligno  

(c.1248–1309)The greatest Italian mystic of the 14th c., born probably at Foligno. There is little sure information on Angela's life. It has been conjectured from the Memorial, a sort ...
Antonines

Antonines  

The Hospitaller Order of St Anthony in Viennois (Isère) arose in c.1095. At this time there appeared in Europe a sickness called ignis sacer by reason of the burning pains ...
Appar

Appar  

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Religion
(Late 6th or 7th cent. ce).A Tamil poet, one of the sixty-three Nāyaṇmārs. A devotee of Śiva, his 312 surviving hymns remain in use. He is a model of the self-effacing servant of the Lord.[...]
Arabian mythology

Arabian mythology  

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Religion
Muslims consider the pre-Islamic age as the Jahiliyah, or “Age of Ignorance”—that is, the time before the revelations of Allah (al-Lah, “the god”) to his prophet Muhammad. The Arabs were ...
Arafat

Arafat  

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Religion
Mountain located outside of Mecca, on whose plain pilgrims gather on the ninth day of Dhu al-Hijjah. There they pray continously from just after noon until shortly after sunset. Many believe that ...
Arnold of Brescia

Arnold of Brescia  

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(d. 1155), reformer. A canon regular, c.1139 he had to leave Brescia after taking part in a conflict between the bishop and reformers. In France he supported Peter Abelard and at the Council of Sens ...
art and architecture: Benedictine

art and architecture: Benedictine  

The Benedictine houses of monks and nuns founded throughout Europe from the middle of the 6th century onwards, although connected by little or no supra-regional hierarchy, shared several ...
art and architecture: Cistercian

art and architecture: Cistercian  

The Cistercian order was founded in 1098 at Cîteaux, in Burgundy, by a group of monks who had left a reformed but traditional Benedictine monastery in hope of living a ...
art and architecture: Romanesque

art and architecture: Romanesque  

Term describing art produced in Europe between roughly 1000 and 1200.1. Definition2. Architecture3. Monumental decoration4. Portable arts5. Secular and military works6. Artists and aesthetics1. ...

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