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Abraham Calovius

Abraham Calovius  

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Religion
(1612–86), German Lutheran theologian. As a staunch defender of Lutheran orthodoxy he opposed G. Calixtus's policy for reuniting the Confessions. He also attacked Socinianism and Pietism.
Adiaphorists

Adiaphorists  

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Religion
A party in German Protestantism which held that certain rules and actions were matters of indifference. The first controversy on the subject broke out in connection with the Leipzig Interim (1548). ...
agape

agape  

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Religion
In Christian theology, Christian love, especially as distinct from erotic love or simple affection; a communal meal in token of Christian fellowship, as held by early Christians in commemoration of ...
Amana Society

Amana Society  

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Religion
A small Christian sect, also known as the Community of True Inspiration. It originated in Germany in 1714. A large part of the body sailed to America in 1842 and in 1855 settled at Amana, Iowa. Their ...
Aufklärung

Aufklärung  

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Literature
The German term for the Enlightenment.
August Hermann Francke

August Hermann Francke  

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Religion
(1663–1727), German Pietist and educationalist. He was already attracted to a pietistic form of religion when he came into contact with P. J. Spener. In 1691 he was appointed professor of Greek and ...
Barbara Juliana Freifrau von Krüdener

Barbara Juliana Freifrau von Krüdener  

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Literature
(1764–1824), Russian Pietist. She influenced the Tsar Alexander I and gained his support for the idea of the Holy Alliance.
Brügglers

Brügglers  

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Religion
A small Swiss sect founded at Brügglen, near Berne, c.1745, by two brothers, Christian and Hieronymus Kohler, probably both impostors from start to finish. Of Pietist origin, they proclaimed several ...
Carpzov

Carpzov  

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Religion
A family of German theologians and lawyers. Among those most distinguished in ecclesiastical affairs were:(1) Benedikt (1595–1666), who founded the earliest complete system of Protestant ...
Christian August Crusius

Christian August Crusius  

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Philosophy
(1715–75)German theologian and philosopher. Crusius was professor of philosophy at Leipzig, and is principally remembered as one of the targets of Kant, particularly in his Dreams of a Spirit-Seer ...
Christian Knorr von Rosenroth

Christian Knorr von Rosenroth  

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Literature
(Alt-Raudten, 1636–89, Sulzbach),a pastor's son, was a Christian of Pietistic leanings (see Pietismus) who was also addicted to alchemistic and cabbalistic studies. He wrote religious poetry which is ...
Christian Thomasius

Christian Thomasius  

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Literature
(1655–1728)Early figure in the German Enlightenment. Thomasius taught in Leipzig and Halle, where he helped to found the university in 1694. He was an opponent of Aristotelianism, Lutheranism, the ...
Christian Wolff

Christian Wolff  

(1679–1754)The principal follower and interpreter of Leibniz. Wolff was primarily a mathematician, but renowned as a systematic philosopher, supposing that all the necessary tenets of metaphysics are ...
Christianity in Ghana

Christianity in Ghana  

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Religion
Christian activity dates from the arrival of the Portuguese on the coast in 1471, but RCs were a small minority when the Dutch took over the Portuguese interests in 1642. Sustained missionary work ...
Der Protestantismus

Der Protestantismus  

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Literature
Takes its name from the protesting princes at the Diet of Speyer (see Reformation) and produced in Germany various Churches and creeds of which only a brief outline can be ...
Dirck Volckertszoon Coornhert

Dirck Volckertszoon Coornhert  

(1522–90), Dutch theologian. He defended liberalism against the strongly Calvinist doctrines then current in the Netherlands. He rejected the idea of a visible Church and maintained the sufficiency ...
Empfindsamkeit

Empfindsamkeit  

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Literature
(Ger., ‘sentiment’, ‘sensitivity’).A term applied to an aesthetic movement that flourished in Europe and especially north Germany in the mid-18th century. Its origins lay partly in the English cult ...
Erik Pontoppidan

Erik Pontoppidan  

(1698–1764), Dano-Norwegian theologian and writer. As a young village parson, Pontoppidan was strongly influenced by Pietism; in 1735, the Pietist Danish king Christian VI appointed him court ...
Ernst Wilhelm Hengstenberg

Ernst Wilhelm Hengstenberg  

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Religion
(1802–69),biblical exegete. From 1828 till his death he was Professor of Biblical Exegesis at Berlin. He was brought up in a rationalist atmosphere, then fell under Pietist influences in ...
Friedrich August Gottreu Tholuck

Friedrich August Gottreu Tholuck  

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Religion
(1799–1877), German Protestant theologian. His influential work, Die Lehre von der Sünde und dem Versöhner (1823) did much to check the spread of Rationalism in Germany. He was a representative of ...

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